Egocentrism in Older Adults

Stages of Erikson’s theory of Psychosocial development
1. Trust vs Mistrust – Outcome Infancy (birth to 18 months): a child learns ability to trust other people forllowin consistency of its caregiver(s). unsuccessful completion of this stage results in child having fear and mistrust (Harder, 2012). A representative of this stage is a one-year child.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt – Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) a child develops sense of independence and personal control over physical skills. Success results to autonomy while failure results in feelings of doubt and shame. An example is a 2-year-old Marleigh from the TLC reality series, “Toddlers & Tiaras.”
3. Initiative vs. Guilt – Preschool (3 to 5 years): a child begins asserting power and control over the environment. Success leads to a sense of purpose; failure results in a sense of guilt.
4. Industry vs. inferiority – School Age (6 to 11 years): a child grows sense of pride in his/her accomplishments. Success results in sense of competence; failure leads to feelings of inferiority. Willow Camille Reign Smith, young American actress and singer is a success story of this stage.
5. Identity vs. Role confusion – Adolescence (12 – 18 years): Social Relationships teens develop sense of personal identity. Success results in ability to stay true to oneself; failure results in role confusion together with weak sense of self. Justin Beiber is a celebrity that represents this stage.
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation – Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) – Young adults form intimate, loving relationships with others. Success results in strong relationships; failure leads to loneliness and isolation. Prince William of Britain is a good reference person of this stage.
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation – Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years): Work and parenthood adults build things that will outlast them e.g. having children or making positive impact on others. Success results in feelings of accomplishment and usefulness and; failure leads to shallow participation in the world. Oprah Winfrey is an example of middle adult with great impact on others.
8. Ego Integrity vs Despair – Maturity (65 to death): Reflection on life. Success results in feelings of wisdom; failure leads to regret, hopelessness bitterness, and despair. Nelson Mandela is an good example representing accomplishment (Harder, 2012).
Harder, F. Arlene. (2012). Erik Erikson’s Stages Psychosocial Development. Retrieved from

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