Expectancy Theory of Motivation



In my personal observation we as a society are directly coded with rewards being linked to our performance.   As silly as it sounds, the praise we seek from our parents at a young age for learning and doing positive things, to our early academic years when we see the correlations between hard work and the fruits it delivers, in this case a grade.  With that being said, we also know the fruitless results of performance when no rewards are given, even when we exerted a great effort for the results.

Leadership in business is no different, “the expectancy theory of motivation is based on the premise that the amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in return.” (DuBruin, 2013)   Again in my opinion its understanding that the power of rewards are individualized, while some may need nothing more than simple recognition, and others will require something more substantial as in the employee of the month plaque. Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, and not the needs unlike Herzberg’s theory of motivationandMaslow’shierarchy of needs. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation believes that the performance is linked to the expectation that the performance will be followed by reward that is appealing to the individual.

The “Vroom” Expectancy Theory of Motivation is based upon the following beliefs, Valence; refers to the emotional orientations people hold… Expectancy; Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Instrumentality; the perception of the employees that they will actually get what they desire (Penguin 1983).


The expectancy theory of motivation is based on the premise that the amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they expect to get in return.” (DuBruin, 2013) With three generations now manning the workforce it is a delicate balance ensuring that all generations see some sort of reward for performance.  As Baby boomers retire and leave the work force the Millennia’s will grow through out the American workforce while Generation X continues to hold on to almost half.  Each group is substantially different in the way they perceive reword for performance.

“Expectancy theory consists of three basic components: (1) the employee’s expectancy that working hard will lead to his or her desired level of performance; (2) the employee’s expectancy that working hard will thus ensure that rewards will follow; and (3) whether or not the employee’s perception that the outcome of working hard is worth the effort or value associated with hard work.” (Hoffman-Miller, 2013)

Baby Boomers wanted their efforts to be rewarded by promotions overtime, after their timeline was met and goals assigned achieved.  Gen X’ers came in with some education wanting the jobs that the baby boomers worked so hard to get in to.  While Millennia’s are now working with more education and demanding at home work environments and/or special privileges.

My suggestion would be to invest in leadership exercising encouragement and feedback in ample amounts for lower level achievements.   “A simple “thank you,” “congratulations” or honest, supportive feedback from a manager can make all the difference, fueling their motivation to produce results.” (Goudreau, 2013)

An established mindset for all should be set that rewards don’t come easily and the rewards that are given are quantified by individual effort and production.  The valence, “worth or attractiveness of an outcome” (DuBruin, 2013), should adhere to all generations.  A Leader needs to remain flexible and open minded with to each groups ability to process rewards.


How would you evaluate the success of the social networking as a team-building exercise?

I evaluate it as an overall success. The purpose of team building is to bring a group of individuals together as a team for a common goal. Social media provided the ability for the agents to connect from offices all over in a centralized hub for idea exchange, forum, and networking. In my organization they have Facebook pages and other social media outlets as a centralized location to discuss acquisition related topics and news. Long Reality did even better because they created it on an intraweb system to protect privacy better. However, it lacks the human aspect and personality interaction that you would find in traditional team-building. I would say it is a good tool and added value to the organization but shouldn’t be used as the main platform of team building.  Is technology enhanced communication better for enhancing teamwork than the traditional methods such as lunch or the telephone? What are the pros and cons for leaders?There are many positive benefits to technology enhanced communication methods. The ability to add different forms of communication such as text, graphic, sound and video to a single message can provide more detail and better explanation than a verbal conversation. The far reaching capability that technology provided is also a definite pro for leaders of large organizations. Technology helps keep coordination efforts minimal and also help prevent having to repeat the same message over and over.

The downsides are that sometimes large communication systems will fail and subject matter experts are needed to fix these systems. In my organization there is usually a network engineer or other Information Technology (IT) individuals to remedy glitches and malfunctions. If for some reason these specialists are not available, technology is ineffective and other forms of communication will need to be used. Another consideration is the size of the organization. A smaller workplace may find mass electronic communication insincere or impersonal.

What style of leadership is Kevin exercising and would this work in your organization?

Kevin is exercising E-leadership. “E-leadership is a form of leadership practiced in a context where work is mediated by information technology. The leadership focus shifts from individuals to networks of relationships because the Internet facilitates connecting so many people” (DuBrin, 2013, p. 281)

This does work in my organization. We have offices spread across Afghanistan, Kuwait, and Qatar. The “flagpole” relies heavily on VTC, share points, office messenger, and e-mail to conduct day to day operations. The amount of transition that occurs in these offices is amazing and continuity and standardization would be very difficult without E-leadership.


Fostering teamwork is well worth the leader’s attention because teamwork is a major contributor to team success.” (Dubruin, 2013) if the intranet “Long Connects” is connecting employees in what seems to be a positive way and promoting teamwork, my evaluation is that it is a great approach and management wants to stay current with their business model.  Encouraging the use of the internal social media site has and will continue to improve the company by connecting different ideas, practices and building relationships. For many employers the virtual work- place, in which employees operate remotely from each other and from managers, is a reality now, and all indications are that it will become even more prevalent in the future. Cascio, W and Shurygailo, S. (2003).

Social media connects almost everyone these days.  Most homes do not have work landline phones and email is the preferred method of communication outside social networking.

“Among the Leader’s actions that Foster Team Work – practicing e-leadership for virtual teams, using technology that facilitates teamwork including social media, and emphasizing group recognition and rewards.” (Dubruin, 2013) Can all be advantageous in Kaplan’s use of intranet at Long Realty.

The established intranet facilitates the cooperation theory, the “belief in cooperation and collaboration rather than competitiveness as a strategy for building teamwork.” (Dubruin, 2013)

Leadrs must look and the freedom of social networking and the problems that it can and will cause.  Public arguments like the one described in the textbook can cause problems not only internally but with customers too.  On the other side, the benefit of autonomy can prove to be very useful.  Employees want to feel they are valuable and wanted with in a team.

Kevin exercised E-Leadership “a form of leadership practiced in context where work is mediated by information technology. The leadership focus shifts from individuals to networks of relationships because the Internet facilitates connecting so many people.” (Dubruin, 2013) This specific business model would not work with my place of employment.  We have a scaled down version of an internal instant messenger that is a huge success.  It gives the ability to communicate with out having to draft up long detailed emails with a specific format.


Last Completed Projects

# topic title discipline academic level pages delivered
Writer's choice
1 hour 32 min
Wise Approach to
2 hours 19 min
1980's and 1990
2 hours 20 min
pick the best topic
2 hours 27 min
finance for leisure
2 hours 36 min

Are you looking for a similar paper or any other quality academic essay? Then look no further. Our research paper writing service is what you require. Our team of experienced writers is on standby to deliver to you an original paper as per your specified instructions with zero plagiarism guaranteed. This is the perfect way you can prepare your own unique academic paper and score the grades you deserve.

Use the order calculator below and get ordering with premiumessayhelp.com now! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.

Type of paper Academic level Subject area
Number of pages Paper urgency Cost per page: