The paper assignment is designed for you to demonstrate critical thinking skills and thoughtful reflection on the assigned topic within social and/or personality development field of study. Be sure to write in your own words. This requires you to read the material and then present the information in your own words to demonstrate understanding without using quotes or lifting material from your sources. To maximize your points for the paper, be sure to read this document thoroughly so that you understand what is expected for the assignment. If not sure, it is your responsibility to talk to the TAs and/or instructor EARLY (not last minute). So plan ahead. We are here to help with your learning! It is important that you put quality thought into the assignment as this is what is being looked for. You are not being graded on “opinion”, but rather on how well you support your insights and arguments (pro or con) with respect to the issues, so be sure to provide evidence for your positions to show critical thinking evaluation. Papers must be / include: Typed Double-spaced 12-point font (Times or Times New Roman) 1-inch margins Minimum of five pages (not 4 and ¾) but not more than 8 pages for the body of the paper. Cover page and references page are not part of final page count. Minimum of 8 references (final paper) – first page of each source (with journal, author, abstract, etc) needs to be submitted with paper. Correct grammar and punctuation is required so if you need help with writing skills, be sure to contact the writing skills center on campus for additional help, AGAIN EARLY. In-paper citations and references must be in APA format (see section about references on page 6) Turning in papers early is accepted and welcomed, but make sure you have done the assignment fully and well. However, you will get your paper back with the rest of the class. PAPER ASSIGNMENT: ONLINE VS. OFFLINE IDENTITIES, PERSONALITIES AND/OR BEHAVIORS Highly recommended you draft an outline ASAP to prepare for and writing your final review paper. The outline will also help you in asking the instructor and/or TA for help in structuring the paper. See section IV (page 5 – 6). I. The topic that you will explore within the social and/or personality fields involves online (internet) vs. offline identity, personalities, and behaviors (social, moral, relationship etc). This will be challenging topic as it is still relatively new for social and/or personality development. There are research that looks at how the internet influences social interactions, relationships, moral development, personality expression, etc. 2 You will explore similarities and/or differences in their online vs. offline personalities and/or behaviors. You can approach this by exploring different types of social media (e.g. facebook, online games, discussion forums, etc) and how the type of social media influences individuals in their online behaviors. Given there are different types of social media, it is recommended you narrow the focus on a specific type and evaluate the unique context of that type of social media. There are various ways to narrow the focus of the research topic, such as: 1) You can address the question of does online or offline personality / behaviors reflect more of the authentic (or true) self. You will need to explain what the authentic self is or means based on psychological literature review, how it reflects identity (including development) and if the different context of online or offline environments influences the authentic self. In other words, “Which is the real person, the online or the offline persona?” 2) You can look at differences in specific aspect of personality traits and/or behaviors such as aggression, bullying (cyberbullying), narcissism, trolling etc and compare online vs. offline expression of these types of behaviors. 3) You can look at how relationships are different online vs. offline. There are various ways to approach this, so if you have any questions, ask the instructor and/or TA. When choosing a focusing your topic to be more specific, some tips: • DON’T pick a broad topic (e.g., internet influences; internet influences on social behavior). Also don’t review only one or two articles on different aspects of the topic because your coverage of each area will be too superficial. Be sure to get at least the minimum number of references, but more is always better for feedback for the final paper. • DO narrow focus on your topic to be more specific (e.g., the effect of online combat games on aggressive behaviors) and explore in-depth recent work done in this specific area of your topic. Sources should be within the last 10 years unless considered classic or seminal research. II. Conduct a literature search of empirically based sources The hardest part of any paper is getting relevant article(s) together that fit well to the topic you are exploring. A. Number of sources to use: For the final paper assignment, you will need a minimum of 8 references, But, in general, a good review paper has more (minimum of 10-15 sources). It depends on assignments and instructors. B. Primary Sources: The most important sources for your review are referred to as primary sources and are scholarly journals that have empirical articles. An empirical article presents an original study (i.e., has to have introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections). III. Getting organized / prepared to write your review paper A. Once you have found appropriate sources for your paper, you should do the following: 1. Read your sources a) Take notes as you read the sources for your topic. Make sure your notes for each source is written in your own words (i.e., paraphrase), do not copy from the articles. When you are 5 working on the draft and final version of your paper, you should only use the notes you made of the sources. Doing so will help you to avoid plagiarizing and/or the temptation to use direct quotes. If you feel you need to use a brief quote from a primary / original source, you must put the quote in italics and provide correct citation of the source. The citation includes the author, year of publication, and the page number that the direct quote is found (i.e., Smith, 2005, p.213) b) When making notes, you should focus on the main findings of each study (primary source) as well as important details such as sample, type of method, age of participants, main findings and conclusions. It is important that to pay attention to strengths and weaknesses of each study reviewed. c) Also pay attention to any issue(s) that the studies do not address or remains unresolved. 2. Organize your sources by category or sub topic. In other words, group the sources on related concepts or information, rather than grouping them together based on something arbitrary such as date of publication. 3. Write an outline for your paper (with references embedded) Develop an outline of your paper with headings and subheadings. See next section on this page for ideas of main sections (e.g. introduction, literature review, etc) and add subsections where needed. Embed into appropriate sections of the outline the sources you are using. Note the instructions for each of the sections. Make a reference page in APA format for the sources listed in your outline (see page 6) IV. Writing your review paper (all parts in APA format). à Final Paper DUE: August 31, 2015 A. Introduction 1. This section is generally one or two paragraphs (1/2 to 1 page). In this section you will introduce and explain what the topic is. You will also describe what the social and or personality development issue that is being explored and why the topic is important. In other words, state the thesis that will guide your review. The thesis statement outlines your topic and provides a focused direction for your paper. B. Literature review (main body of paper) 1. Using your outline as a guideline, summarize each of your sources under subheadings that address a particular aspect of your overall topic being reviewed. More about using APA style for subheadings is presented later in this assignment instructions. 2. When summarizing the empirical articles you are using, be sure to note important information about the study such as the research objectives (i.e., research interest or question, hypotheses), information about the participants (sample) such as age, demographic breakdown, etc. Research design (e.g. longitudinal, cross-sectional), how they collected the data, key findings of the studies and conclusions about the findings. It is important to include a critical evaluation of the sources you used. So each study should be evaluated regarding strengths and weaknesses of the study that should be part of summarizing the empirical article. The more you do a critical assessment of the sources you use, the stronger your paper will be. 6 3. Be sure to explain how your sources (primary and secondary) that you reviewed in each of your paper sections is connected to your thesis statement that was remind the reader about how the articles, books, and chapters you review in each section relate back to the thesis you stipulated the introduction section of the paper. 4. Often while searching for, evaluating and writing about the sources used in your paper, areas of conflict (disagreement) or controversy about a topic are encountered. When confronted with such conflict or controversy, you should objectively and accurately address the different sides of the issue in separate subsections of your paper. It is acceptable to make conclusions about which side based on your evaluation has stronger supporting evidence. But make sure the conclusion(s) you make are evidence based and not your opinion or what you personally prefer as a conclusion 5. You must include APA formatted in-paper citations for all of your sources. Per APA guidelines, all sources must be cited. a) Only include and cite sources that you actually read. b) If you see a citation in another paper that you think might be useful and you want to include into your paper, then you need to retrieve that source and read it yourself. Once you have read it, then you can cite the source directly. c) If you have not read a source in its original form, do not use it as a reference for your paper even if it was in another article. d) Unless you actually came up with a new idea on your own, every knowledge, thought or idea that came from a source needs to be cited. e) Avoid using direct quotes from sources as much as possible. It is very difficult for a reader to follow a paper that uses too many quotes, nor does it reflect your own thinking and processing of the information. Your paper will be much better written if you paraphrase your sources instead of using quotes. Please see pages 170-174 in the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) on paraphrasing. f) More information about citing references will be provided later in these instructions. C. Conclusions / Discussion 1. For this last section of your paper, you will give a brief summary of the main points of your review. 2. Discuss the conclusions that can be made from your review of the topic and be sure to relate these conclusions to your thesis statement that was presented in the introduction section. 3. Make sure the conclusions you make are accurate and logically made with respect to the sources you uses. Don’t overstate your conclusions meaning that you should not make assumptions that can not be adequately supported by the findings of studies you reviewed. D. Implications / Directions for future research 1. Discuss any important implications that the conclusion you made about the topic may have on individuals, families, and/or society such as policy decisions, educational / awareness programs, prevention, intervention, etc. 2. Also briefly discuss any unresolved issues that you feel needs to be addressed in future research. Such as were there any groups that were not studied that should have been? Other research designs 7 that might be useful? New research questions to consider that could provide information on other possible explanations of the issues? E. References 1. Every information that was used in your paper that came from a source needs to be included in your references page (at the end of the paper), so readers are able to follow up with the actual source of information cited if interested. 2. See section on APA Formatting about formatting references. Attach a copy of the first page of all primary sources (showing journal, abstract, date etc) that were used.


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