Answer the following four (4) short answer questions:
The flow of blood through the heart and body is driven by contractions of the heart chambers.
These contractions are activated by the cardiac conduction system.
Q1. Describe the components and conduction pathway of the cardiac conduction system of the heart.
Relate the cardiac conduction system to the corresponding sequence of heart chamber contractions
(10 marks) (400 words)
Q2. Trace the pathway of oxygen delivery to cells in the body (commencing at the alveoli until it
reaches tissue cells) (5 marks) (200 words)
Q3. Describe one normal age-related change to the anatomy of the cardiovascular system in healthy
elderly adults (over 65 years). Describe how this change affects the function of the cardiovascular
system. (5 marks) (200 words)
Regular exercise provides benefits to maintaining the health and wellbeing of the
Q4. Describe one effect regular exercise has in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system (5
marks) (200 words)
Each question should be answered separately and not as an essay.
At least one of the following journal article(s) must be used in this assessment:
Fleg, J. L., & Strait, J. (2012). Age-associated changes in cardiovascular structure and
function: A fertile milieu for future disease. Heart Failure Reviews 17(4), 545-554.
Bolton, E., & Chakravarthi, R. (2011). The ageing cardiovascular system. Reviews of Clinical
Gerontology 21(2), 99-109.
A maximum of two (2) relevant, credible internet sources may be used.
All answers must include in-text references and a reference list must be included at the
end of the assessment. The reference list and in-text references are not included in the
Reference style used will be the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style
guide 6th edition.