Write a maximum of 4 pages: Examine the emphasis on “LAW” in the ethical approaches of Immanuel Kant, Aquinas and Aristotle. Use the below information and resources only. Below are very specific instructions. I don’t need to know the back ground of these philosophers just discuss the difference and the problem at hand.
These 2 books must be the sources:
1. Fagothey, Austin, Rev., S.J., Right and Reason: Ethics in Theory and Practice Based on the teachings of Arisotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. Second Edition. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company, 1959. TAN Publishers, Rockford Illinois (reprint), 2000. ISBN: 0895556685
• In this book use Chapter 10 “LAW” pg. 161-170 and 11 “Natural law” pg. 170-190
• In this book use Chapter 12 Obligation and Sanction pg.190-206 for Kant’s approach
2. Aquinas, St. Thomas., Thomas Aquinas: Selected Readings. ed. Ralph McInerny. New York: Penguin Classics, 1999. ISBN: 0140436324
• In this book use Pg. 611-653: On Law and Natural Law
• In this book use Pg. 566-577: Specifically Question 18”The Goodness and Badness of Human Acts in General,” and use only Articles 2 through 7 for St. Tomas Aquinas’ approach
• You can also use the Right and Reason book Chapter 9 Sources of Morality pg. 145-160 to support St. Tomas Aquinas’ approach
This must be in the text and support it by additional information from the two books above:
Kant- criteria is INTERIOR. It’s autonomous and comes from within. Man gives law to himself. I am the author of the law. Kant says “I can’t know anything.” Law within itself. Good leads to good will. What is a good will? One that is exercised. What do you exercise it for? I exercise it for nothing. Kant is unforgiving, exceptional, and ruthless because it put moral handcuffs on you.
Kant’s terms and concepts:
1. What is the “GOOD?” that will which is exercised. Exercised for what? It’s just exercised.
2. Only acts motivated by duty have moral ethical worth.
3. The categorical imperative- What is it? I can do no wrong. It is simple and clear and it is an order or command. Who gives the order? I do. He basically doesn’t consider the Act, the Action, the Circumstance so you are basically a slave
4. Means/Ends- each person is an end in themselves which subverts the whole claim.
KANT IS A PROBLEM
Four erroneous views of ethical analysis routed in Kant 1. Situational ethics, 2.Consequentialism, 3. Proportionalism, 4.Intentionalism.
Situational ethics- right/wrong depends on the situation
Consequentialism- right/wrong depends on consequences backing into morality.
Proprotionalism- right and wrong depend on the proportion of good and bad
Intentionalism- rightand wrong depend on the intention behind the act.
Aquinas and Aristotle- Criteria are EXTERNAL (Natural LAW). There anchor is end, happiness, good, virtue and the main thing is OBJECT, INTENTION, CIRCUMSTANCES
The good leads to desire and will, which leads to consent, which leads to the act of will it gives rise to act of will.
1. Please word process your answer with MS Word.
2. Margins should be 1 inch on all sides and use 12 pt. font Times New Roman
3. Length must be 3 full pages, double spaced
4. Include a work cited page as well as in-text references from both books listed above with PAGE NUMBERS
5. Use MLA.
6. Do not explain who these philosophers were. Stick to the point about LAW and Natural Law and the difference in how the two Philosophers KANT and Aquinas (who has the same view as Aristotle I believe) approach the problem.