Global Health Problems
Global health focuses on the health of populations in the world, it has been noted that global health supersedes the efforts of individual nations is eliminating the health problems. In the twenty first century, socialization and globalization has led to increased mobility and communication of people all over the world; hence increasing the vulnerability of the entire population (Birn et al, 2009). Diarrhea disease is part of the global health problems that has a negative impact to the global economic and political impact. Global health is concerned with making sure that all the human populations in the world is safe and free from diseases, which is part of equality in the provision of healthcare among the people irrespective of the social standing in the community (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010).
There are a number of international organizations that deals with global health, some of the common organizations identify with: World Health Organization (WHO), World Food Program (WFP), World Bank and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) among others. In the recent past, Millennium Development Goals and United Nations Millennium Declaration are part of the major initiatives in the global health directed at improving the health conditions of the people in the world (Birn et al, 2009).
Diarrhea Disease (Global Concern)
Diarrhea according to the surveys done in the world has been associated with high mortality rate among the children; diarrhea is the second among the children killer diseases. It is estimated that among children of less than five years, diarrhea contributes to more than seventeen percent of the deaths in the world. One of the most common causes of diarrhea disease is poor sanitation, which facilitates the spread of viruses and bacteria through food, water, flies, utensils and dirty hands among others (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010).
Diarrhea causes dehydration, which is treatable through the administration of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), which reduces chances of child mortality. The challenge facing the world is pegged to the fact that a significant number of people have no access to medical facilities (Birn et al, 2009). It is argued that a significant number of child mortality is fuelled by inadequate reach to the health care or simply lack of knowledge. Taking a critical look at Rotavirus diarrhea, the disease kills many children in the world. Other types of diarrhea are giardiasis, norovirus, salmonella infections and campylobacter (Nhs.uk, 2012,).
Nurses manage Rotavirus diarrhea through vaccines, which are cost effective. Hygiene measures are also encouraged by nurses in managing diarrhea diseases. Nurses further argue that nutritional measures are critical in managing diarrhea diseases, and that diarrhea can be minimized through zinc supplementation and encouraging breastfeeding of young children.
Surveys done by the World Health Organization indicated that diarrhea is characterized with passage of three or more liquid or loose stools in a day, or simply frequent passage of stool more than the normal (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010). Diarrhea symbolizes infection in the gastrointestinal. Severe diarrhea is dangerous to the lives of children or to mature people with impaired immunity or malnourished.
Role of Nurses in Managing Diarrhea
Managing diarrhea is part of the measures taken in dealing with the disease in the world. Some of the common management models identifies with drinking excessive fluids, taking Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS), eating and taking medicine.
Nurses encourage patients to drink fluids in plenty, which is a way of avoiding chances of dehydration (Birn et al, 2009). Nurses argue that patients should take frequent and small sips of water among other fluids, and at the same time reduce chances of vomiting. Children are critical when it comes to dehydration, parents and guardians must make sure that dehydration is avoided. Fizzy drinks and fruit juices should be avoided.
Signs of dehydration in children are: drowsiness, irritability, passage of urine in a frequent manner, mottled or pale skin, cold feet and hands and worsening health conditions in the patient (Nhs.uk, 2012,). Children are the most affected by diarrhea especially under one year, diarrhea common in children under two years especially those with issues of low birth weight, children who has experienced diarrhea in the last twenty four hours, children who has had constant vomiting, children unable to hold fluids in their body and children who stop breastfeeding drastically (Guandalini & Vaziri, 2010).
Nurses argue that children with diarrhea should continue being bottle-fed or breastfeed, mothers are advised to take in more fluids to increase output of the milk. Children are given Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) after being cleared by the nurses. Opinions on eating vary with the health care professionals on what should be eaten or avoided while on diarrhea (Nhs.uk, 2012,). Nurses advise light and small food and gradually introduce hard foods. Spicy, fatty and heavy foods should be avoided. If the patient feels not eating, nurses advise constant intake of fluids.
Nurses administer antidiarrhoeal medicines which shorten the effects of the disease to like twenty four hours, which makes it easy for the patients to resume normal day to day activities. Loperamide is the common medicine used in treating diarrhea; the medicine is characterized with slowing down the movement of the muscle in the gut, hence increasing chances of fluid absorption in the gut. Stools with mucus or blood must be handled with special care, and patients must be under the watch of the medical practitioners. There are other medicines used in the management of diarrhea administered depending on the age and the weight of the patient (Birn et al, 2009).
Birn, A. et al. (2009). Textbook of International Health: Global Health in a Dynamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guandalini, S. & Vaziri, H. (2010). Diarrhea: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances. New York: Humana Press.
Nhs.uk. (2012, November 28). Treating diarrhoea. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from Nhs.uk: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diarrhoea/Pages/Treatment.aspx