Women Driving in Saudi Arabia.

Women Driving in Saudi Arabia

This essay is a argumentative essay which is based on a debatable topic “Are Women allowed to drive a car in Saudi Arab”. The thesis statement is that “Should driving be allowed to Women in Saudi Arabia”. This paper will support the thesis statement that women must be allowed driving. The points in favor of this topic will be presented along with the counter arguments to reach a conclusion. The women are forbidden to drive in Saudi Arab. The punishment may be different from the penalty for driving a man without proper qualifications to present a spanking (Shmuluvitz). Besides the ban of female driving in Saudi cannot travel without the permission of the men do not have to deal with males that doesn’t include their relatives or in-laws (Farmer). Also, women cannot hold high political office. Male guardian can prohibit a woman to get a job or open a bank account. The proposal to allow the fair sex drive experts estimate as cautious initiative of King Abdullah to provide all women more rights. Among the residents of Saudi Arabia has long been talk of lifting the ban but very rarely the problem raised by officials (Shmuluvitz).  Now even religious leaders recognize: a ban on driving imposed because of Sharia law and because of the fact that such steps may violate public morality.

In order to support the female to drive , Women in Saudi Arabia appealed to the king to allow them to drive cars. In UAE the only country where women are forbidden to drive is Saudi Arab, violators are usually sentenced to flogging (Shmuluvitz).  To the King of Saudi Arab Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud asked members of the Shura Council for permission to drive women living in the kingdom. Women in council included only in the beginning of this year. Their initiative, believe there will help to equalize the rights of the sexes in the country. Shura Council member Hanan al-Ahmad said that the issue of the driving and the rights of Women was raised during the discussion of the Ministry of Transport (Shmuluvitz).  Men and women, members of the board, consider this ban burden for women, as they have no other options but to use public transport, the words Hanan Al-Ahmadi, The Guardian (Yamani). Her colleague Latif al-Shaalan offered to prepare a recommendation to the Ministry of Transport. Now the Shura Council must finally decide whether to offer these recommendations to the Ministry of Transport. If the Ministry rejects them, the matter would be put to a separate discussion of the Board. In April, a woman in Saudi Arabia was allowed to ride bikes and buggies (SUV to drive on the sand) (Shmuluvitz). However, during the journey they must be accompanied by a relative or a security guard, and themselves traveler should be modestly dressed and as reported women can use the bikes and buggies only for recreation, not for commuting (Beyer). Most recently, in early October, the women of Saudi Arabia have another indulgence the right to work and the lawyers to represent the interests of the accused in court on October, authorities issued the first four women lawyers’ licenses. Until now, Females are permitted only to work in the role of legal advisers; they could not defend their clients in court (Beyer).

The laws in Saudi Arab are strict for Women and it restricts the females to drive. However, they cannot qualify for a driver’s license. Activists who defend the rights of Females in the kingdom of Saudi, October call to campaign against the ban (Beyer).  Namely the women sit behind the wheel of cars. Activists are asking families to support their relatives who will take part in the action. Previous campaign, which was held in 2011, ended with the arrest of participants (Shmuluvitz).  Then dozens of Saudi women have posted their photos at the wheel on the social networks. It is known that one of the detainees was released after sign an undertaking that no longer sit behind the wheel. Another participant punished with 10 lashes (Beyer).  However, over the enforcement of the sentence go contradictory rumors; In particular, a Saudi princess said that the conviction was overturned (Yamani). Why women are punished by flogging for driving? After all the wives of the Prophet Muhammad could ride on camels and horses then said one of the activists. Shura Council is an advisory body whose members are appointed by the king. The Council may make different recommendations, which often lay the basis for reform. Prior to the beginning of this year, the council consisted only of men (Beyer).  However, in January, the king signed a decree, that in the council of 150 people should be at least 30 women (Farmer).These restrictions are due to the strict Islamic laws in Arabia. Women must have to wear hijab and they are totally dependent on men. However, since the culture is changing the mind of people is becoming broader and females are getting stronger. They know about their rights so they are fighting for it. They went to the King Shah Abdul Aziz to allow women to drive a car. The women also won elections which resulted in the odds in their favor. Thus, in the future they will be allowed to drive a car and will be independent.

The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Sheikh Abdel-Aziz al-Sheikh said that the laws of the kingdom, forbidding women to drive a car are designed to protect the public from harm. He urged Saudi nationals not to focus on the issue, said the site Al-Hayat. About what is evil in question, the mufti is not explained. Speaking at the University of Taiba in Medina, the mufti also urged the students to resist evil in the media (Beyer).  According to him, some elements are willing to denigrate the state and its achievements in the service of Islam and Muslims. Mufti stressed the need to unite in defense of religion and society in the period of conflicting views and a lot of trouble (Yamani). The females are restricted from driving in Saudi. In the kingdom grows public campaign in support of the abolition of the rule. Among its activists have men (Beyer).  On October, dozens of women held a demonstration against the ban sat behind the wheel. In support of the existing order are the conservative circles of the clergy. So, theologian, Sheikh Salah Bin Saad Al-Luhaydan said in an interview with a Saudi websites that women often drive a car, deformed pelvis; in addition, a stay at the wheel damages the ovaries. According to Sheikh, the harm has been established in the course of special medical research (Beyer).  As stressed by Salah al-Luhaydan, women who constantly drive cars, have children with disabilities, suffering from various diseases. With opinion sheikh about religious prohibitions do not agree morality police chief of Saudi Arabia, Sheikh Abdel-Latif al-Sheikh. He said that Sharia forbids women to drive cars. Al-Sheikh said that after he took the moral police, the police stopped detain women driving (Shmuluvitz).

Scientists from Saudi Arabia to explain why women should not be allowed behind the wheel; In their opinion, corrupts women driving a car (Shmuluvitz).  Actions under King Saudi Shura -the council of elders was developed a list of criteria, while meeting women can admit to driving (Shmuluvitz). Under the proposed regulations, use a driver’s license can ladies older than 30 years, while they would be allowed to travel by car only during daylight hours and the absence of facial cosmetics. Everything else, to driving the women of Saudi Arabia will need to obtain permission of the father or husband, and if they are absent a son or brother (Shmuluvitz).  During a trip outside the major settlements women drivers must necessarily comprise of a relative that is a men. Also in the council of elders decided to think about the female traffic control. The employees of this service should be to provide assistance to women at the wheel in the event that their car will break down or there will be other difficulties, and supervision of their operation will be carried out religious control (Shmuluvitz). The recommendations are not mandatory Shura to perform them the government of the kingdom. On the territory of Saudi Arabia has no formal direct prohibition for women to ensure that they drove the car. But local laws permitted to drive only the owners of the rights that have been issued by the authorities of the Kingdom, with women such rights are not issued (Doumato).  Accordingly, even those residents of the kingdom, which received overseas license, cannot legally drive a car (Yamani).

In short, considering all these facts and counter arguments, I support the thesis statement that the female and the women must be given access to drive and can get a license in Kingdom of Saudi. It is worth noting the sole country which restrict driving and given access to women to gain license is Kingdom of Saudi Where not legally permitted to female sex drive car . In relation to women living in the kingdom and also has a large number of other restrictions (Shmuluvitz).  For example, not all women can marry with the citizens of other countries and on travel, employment, education or surgery they need to obtain special permission for men. In addition, Saudi Arabia only in 2011, women won the right to vote and be elected in local elections (Shmuluvitz).  The world is changing and has turned into a global village. Those of a conservative thinking are left behind and can’t progress. Islam promotes that both the women and the men are equal; so, why should women be left behind. They can drive and on the other hand can follow the principle of Islam i.e. do hijab and wear burqa; allowing them to drive is their right and this way they will be independent as they don’t have to rely on the males. The women are fighting for their rights as there is no harm in not letting them drive. Islam doesn’t restricts women to drive but women have to follow the principles of Islam when driving.


 Work Cited

Beyer, Lisa. “The women of Islam.” Time 3 (2001): 50-9: EBSCO Publishing

Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. “Women and work in Saudi Arabia: how flexible are Islamic margins?.” The Middle East Journal (1999): 568-583.

Shmuluvitz, Shoshana. “The Saudi Women2Drive Campaign: Just Another Protest in the Arab Spring?.” Tel Aviv Notes 5 (2011): 14.

Yamani, Mai. Changed identities: The challenge of the new generation in Saudi Arabia. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2000.

Farmer, Lesley. ‘Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA)2008200 Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA) . Ipswich, MA: EBSCO Publishing Last Visited January 2008. Gratis URL: Www.Libraryresearch.Com’. Reference Reviews 22.5 (2008): 10-10. Web.

Illegal Drugs among Teens.

Illegal Drugs among Teens

The use of licit drugs amongst teenagers is worrying. Many teenagers are becoming victims of illicit drug use mainly due to increasing availability and popularity of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, amongst other drugs. For instance, the marijuana use amongst teenagers was in the decline from late 1990s until mid-2000s. However, since then, it has been on the increase again. As stated by Flum and Martin (101), “marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug amongst adolescents and teenagers”. The recent rise in the use of marijuana amongst teenagers reflects the changing attitudes and perceptions about drugs. Previously, the use of marijuana went up with the decrease of the perception of risks and vice versa. Nowadays, young people little disapprove marijuana intake. Furthermore, they are developing a decreased perception that marijuana is a dangerous drug. In general, there is a growing perception amongst teenagers that marijuana is safe and good for human usage.

Illicit drug use amongst teenagers includes the abuse prescription medications. These may as well include an assorted range of household substances. This is something that many teenagers across the world engage in occasionally. A few teenagers do this regularly. About more than half of adolescent youths in twelfthgrade have abused illicit drug at least once in their life. Apart from marijuana, teenagers also commonly abused glues, prescription medications, alcohol, tobacco, aerosols amongst others. Apart from these, there are also new synthetic drugs that have cropped in the market. The use of new synthetic drugs by teenagers also creates a worrying trend. However, their use is not as popular as marijuana. Synthetic drugs refer to herbal mixtures that are laced with synthetic chemicals such as THC, which is the primary active ingredient in marijuana. Most of these synthetic drugs are nowadays commonly available in the market and freely accessible by teenagers.

During the adolescent ages, many young people want to express their autonomy by taking risks. This is a common attitude and behavior across all young people. Risk taking thus becomes normal and a welcomed attitude and behavior during the adolescent life. Although risk taking is a positive development into adulthood, it carries severe potential dangers in the life of teenagers. The most common danger is the risk of indulging in illicit drug abuse. On the other hand, some adolescents engage in abuse of illicit drugs simply because they are trying out something new. Majority also fall victim of drug abuse due to peer pressure and influence. Because they want to be maintained within their peers, they are compelled to take illicit drugs. Peer pressure greatly influences the extent and nature of drug abuse amongst young people. Some also start abusing drugs because they want recognition.

Obviously, illicit drugs have severe and lethal effects on the life of teenagers. Unfortunately, most young people indulge in drug abuse without understanding the effects and risks involved. In particular, teenagers become vulnerable to the damaging effects of illicit drug use. This is because their brains and other body organs are still developing. For instance, the use of marijuana has severe lasting effects on the brain. Drug abuse amongst teenagers is also widely associated with many harmful behaviors such as sexual immorality, criminal activities etc. The use of illicit drugs amongst teenagers can cause both long term and short-term health problems. It is apparently very difficult to generalize what effects might be exhibited in an individual. Furthermore, many illicit drugs do not have standardized dosage.

As explained by Murphey et al (2), adolescent teenagers who use illicit drugs are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. They are also involved in crime and delinquency. In addition, teenagers who use illicit drugs usually have problems in schools. The school problems may include poor academic performance, low attendance, as well as increased likelihood of school dropout and expulsion. Additionally, the use of illicit drug affects their relationships with friends and family members. This causes the affected teenager to be dishonest, violent, unreliable, or forgetful. This ultimately put them to increased risk of victim of violence. These effects will last for ages thus affecting their adulthood life.

Illicit drugs also cause numerous physical problems in teenagers. This depends on the type of drug being abused by the teenager. In the short term, these physical problems may include heart attack, lung failure, and heart failure etc. On the long term, they may include cardiovascular and lung diseases, obesity, cancer etc. Illicit drug use also increases the risk of contracting other diseases such as hepatitis and HIV. In general, teenagers who abuse illicit drugs have a reduced lifespan. They also have higher death rates as compared to their peers who do not abuse drugs. This is because they have increased risks of homicide, suicide, illness, as well as injuries. Such children may also develop severe mental disorders such as paranoia, developmental delays, hallucinations, anxiety, depression, delusions, and mood disturbances (Gullotta et al 45).

Work Cited

Flum, Jörg, and Martin Ziegler. Topological Model Theory. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005. Print.

Gullotta, Thomas P, Robert W. Plant, and Melanie A. Evans. Handbook of Adolescent Behavioral Problems: Evidence-based Approaches to Prevention and Treatment. , 2014. Internet resource.

Murphey, Barry, B Vaughn, M Guzman, and Terzian, “Adolescent Health Highlight: Use of Illicit Drugs”: Child Trends 11, 2013.

The challenges of raising children in 21st century.

Each public stresses over its children, and the late media storm over the tormented school transport screen centered our consideration on youngsters who seem unmoored in the educational system. Nevertheless, the issue of youth rebellions is an old one. Positively, the 21st Century presents specific child-rearing difficulties: the ascent of online networking and the every minute of every day, globalization, changing demographics and grown-up parts, high-stakes testing in prior and prior evaluations. Indeed children’s bodies have changed, with prior pubescence and becoming rates of stoutness. Furthermore, nervousness is in the drinking water, all around.

Today’s general public, family structure has changed drastically from the conventional atomic family to the whimsical, for example, single parent and same-sex families. Over a few decades, numerous people addressed whether a parent’s sexual orientation influenced their youngster’s sexual inclination. Some critical research has demonstrated that children with lesbian parent are not as unique in relation to youngsters with heterosexual parents. Numerous people expressed that it was the estimation of the parent’s association with the youngster and not the parent’s sexual introduction that influences the child’s improvement. In spite of the prevalent view, youngsters raised by gay person parent are not more inclined to wind up gay than children who are raised by heterosexual parents. A parent’s sexual orientation has said to have little criticalness to children as opposed to the family companionship. As such, the relationship of the parent and child is far more prominent essential than the sexual orientation of one’s parents.

Western society underscores the imperativeness of freedom. Individuals in the Western society accept that infant will have attributes focused around his/her qualities and along these lines their reaction (surroundings) would not have any kind of effect. Hence, they overlook the infant when he calls/cries. This demonstrates a clash between baby knowledge and social caretaking belief. Communication between a parent and baby is additionally vital in how the newborn child would respond in social circumstances. Notwithstanding health matters, children and all the commotion in life it is critical to kick back and take in one’s surroundings. Individuals in today’s reality live for their business and never take in the common marvels that encompass them. Considering on the miracles of the world, for example, the delightful sun that accents and sets mellows the spirit. Appreciating a long stroll on the shoreline with a tender breeze crossing a cheek and the delicate touch of the sand on one foot ought to be an obligatory prerequisite of life. Halting to smell the blossoms is critical because tomorrow they could wither, pass out of the presence and the fragrance will scatter. It is critical to passing the knowledge of the important things in life to our children as opposed to making them focus on work and wealth creation.

In conclusion, putting child raising on a standard with national security and the worldwide economy reaffirms that it parent, as well as society as an issue, that ought to fret about youngsters. How about we quit jumping to get out parents’ each slip and inspect the sorts of societal drives that have constantly made youth such an unstable venture.Parents ought to know the biological desires the child has of them so that as opposed to choosing decision from numerous substitute methods for doing something, a parent can settle on a good choice. Nothing in science bodes well, aside from in light of development thus we ought to study how the children as a biological entity that has advanced over eras into its present day structure. Human babies are conceived with half-completed brains, which are distinctive contrasted with different warm-blooded creatures.

Academic and professional ethics.

Academic and professional ethics

Academic ethics refers to the integrity policies and the moral code that guides all the people involved in studying, writing or using academic materials (Bleeker, 2007). The concept of ethics in academics often encompass issues related to plagiarism and cheating. As a result, it is important in ensuring that academicians maintain a high standards of rigor in their research which narrows town to honesty and credibility.Given the fact that the internet has become a quick source of academic material, there has been a relative increase in academic fraud thus the reinforcement of these ethics will go a long way into reducing incidences of academic fraud associated with cheating and plagiarism. On the same note, there is professional ethics, which unlike academic ethics, refers to an acceptable code of conduct that dictates the behavior of people, corporates and organizations. This group of ethics observes that professionals in all disciples have to exhibit high standards of behavior.The importance of ethics is therefore to ensure adherence to certain set standards that guide and regulate moral issues and activities of all the participants either in academic or professional fields.

According to the Kaplan University plagiarism policy, plagiarism denotes the deliberate or undeliberate act of beaching academic and professional ethics which amounts to academic dishonesty. It is a violation of the Honor Code set by the university. Plagiarism results from an attempt to recycle owns work in another course or another semester, failure to give credit to the author of a given course work, inaccurate citations of another person’s work and failure to paraphrase words that have been stated by another writer. The Plagiarism Clarification clause of the Academic Integrity Policy used at Kaplan University identifies that the students have to ensure that their work has to be original and it should also include appropriate citations and acknowledgement of external sources that have been utilized in completing the coursework, assignment and projects (Elke, 2014). The scope of the policy covers information extracted from computer programs, discussion boards, marketing plans, past papers, other assignments and PowerPoint presentations. The policy further states that plagiarism could also include purchasing of academic papers from online writing companies and submitting the same as owns personal work.Tricia (2012), cites that the most common sources of plagiarism include electronic media, either primary or secondary published materials, and opinions or information that has been gathered directly from third parties.

The three levels of consequence for people who violate plagiarism policies are classified under sanctions where the Academic Integrity Policy specifies the first offense has to be punished with failure in the assignment that has been plagiarized or identified with academic malpractice. The second level of offense will include failure in the class, which has been identified with the academic breach, and the third level offense involves permanent dismissal or expulsion of the offender from the University. It is noted that Kaplan University holds academic ethics and professional ethics at its core and this is the reason why violators are charged as per the University policies after which they are permanently recorded into the University’s databases (Elke, 2014). An offense committed in one program at the University will be carried forwards to subsequent programs that a student re-enrolls at the Kaplan University.

The process of instituting these charges against the perpetrator requires that the course instructor has to notify the student of the charges associated with academic fraud identified in their work. The instructor then has to forward the charge to the Provost’s Office through writing. The Provost’s Office then sends the student a copy of the Kaplan University’s Integrity Policy and a notification that the student has been involved in academic dishonesty (Elke, 2014). The charge is then filed at the Provost’s Office under a specific database for charges against academic dishonesty. The violator that has been convicted for academic violation has the right to make an appeal to the relevant authorities such as an appeal board.

The process of avoiding a charge against academic dishonesty emerges from the realization that academic fraud entails a wide array of academic malpractices of which plagiarism is part. Some academic dishonest may result from misinformation or complete lack of information on how certain things have to be done. For instance, some students fail to understand that failure to reference a given academic work that is not originally there is an offence. As a result, it is highly recommended that the teachers and instructors have to dedicate their time towards teaching the students the different forms of academic dishonesty and how they can be avoided (Sullivan, 2010). On the other hand, the students have to plan their time wisely so as to avoid last minute rushes especially when handling assignments. This is because rushing through an assignment could tempt a student into directly copying content from web pages or participating in collusion. The first step towards avoiding charge is therefore to plan properly and ensure that the assignments are completed in time so that the student can pass it through plagiarism detection software programs that will identify unintentional forms of plagiarism.

The second way to avoid academic dishonesty is by talking to the professor or the instructor. In the event that a student realizes that he or she is time barred, the best decision could be to talk to the instructor on the possibility of granting an extension. This is because it is much better getting a deduction on the final grade because of extending the submission time rather than becoming a victim of academic dishonesty. The third option is to read the syllabus and the course content for each class. A student who reads the syllabus is more informed on academic dishonesty and other relevant information that will be important. This will help in seeking for assistance whenever faced with a dilemma that is likely to result into academic dishonesty such as copying of exams. The fourth way of avoiding charge against academic dishonesty is by understanding the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is an acceptable academic practice that entails restating another person’s words. On the contrary, plagiarism is the process of presenting another person’s work without giving due credit (Elke, 2014). In order to avoid plagiarism, the students have to learn how to use academic formatting styles such as the American Psychological Association (APA) format or MLA.

Joseph, (2007) states that personal choices have a direct impact on the life goals of a person. This includes the realization that these choices impact on academic and professional careers of a person. Examples of personal choices range from the decision to work independently, the decision to collude during exams, the decision to advance academically, the decision to advance a person’s profession and lastly the decision to influence other people into making personal choices. A person who makes a right decision in each of these classifications is likely to have a good track record which amounts to professional ethics. Therefore the best plan of action for maintaining both professional and academic ethics is the inert belief in self-capabilities. This is because believing in one’s self will enable a person to conduct themselves in a manner that is honest thus preventing them from participating in academic dishonesty.



Bleeker, K. (2007). To Be Honest: Championing Academic Integrity in Community Colleges. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Elke, K. (2014). What You Need to Know about Plagiarism. Chicago: Kaplan University Writing Centre.

Joseph, J. (2007). Ethics in the Workplace.New York: Oxford University Press

Sullivan, B. (2010). Academic Dishonesty in Higher Education: The Impact of a Student Development. London: Penguin Books.

Tricia, G. (2012). Twenty-First Century Forces Shaping Academic Integrity.Academic Integrity in the Twenty-First Century, 2(1), 65–78.

Auto-pilot Cars and Restrictions to Women Driving in Saudi Arabia.

Auto-pilot Cars and Restrictions to Women Driving in Saudi Arabia

Amnesty International reports that it is only in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia where women are not allowed to drive. This is amongst a number of restrictions targeting women that requires them to be given permission by their male counterparts or guardians. Reasons for the ban on women driving are; driving may cause women to uncover their faces, it may keep them away from home for long, threatens traditional values and may lead to overcrowding in public places and prevent proper functioning of males in such places. Worse still, there is no form of public transport that is acceptable thus they have to be driven by their husbands, a few other permitted males or taxi drivers everywhere they go. Ban on women driving without a proper public transport system specially instituted for them is therefore a big social problem.


Despite Saudi women’s driving ban being a pertinent gender segregation issue, it is clear that many of their freedoms are also abused thus worsening the few transport choices they may have. Despite the ban being a violation of gender segregation laws and not supported by the Qur’an, its implementation is an extension of numerous biased traditional and religious rules that seek to protect men’s position above women and women’s overall demeanor. Nonetheless, upholding the status quo not only means denying women their basic rights as humans but also puts them and people that could depend on them at an undue disadvantage. For instance, consider a woman living alone with a sick relative. An emergency might occur requiring that she rushes the relative to hospital. If there is no permitted male person around at the time of the incident, she would be at fault if she chose to save the relative’s life by driving to the hospital.


Besides such dilemmas, Saudi women’s predicament places them at the midst of four serious problems and risks; safety, harassment, privacy and costs. Women have widely complained of the risk they are exposed to while being driven alone by drivers they may or may not know. Any disagreement puts them at risk of being physically hurt or being left in the middle of nowhere. They have also complained about the male drivers being a bother to them since some of them do not shy away from flirting with them or using inappropriate language or gestures. Solitude inside the taxis or the taxis being driven to solitary places puts the women at a constant risk of being sexually or physically abused. Some drivers’ flirtatious conversations are an intrusion into the women’s privacy and an abuse of their dignity. Moreover, since drivers drive the women to their places of residence, their knowledge of the places sometimes encourages the drivers to come back for reasons not related to transportation e.g. sexual harassment on women living alone. The women who have to use a taxi every time they need to go somewhere find it very costly because they spend more than they otherwise would if they were to use public transportation means.


The women’s limited choices – either be driven by permitted males or take taxis to every place they need to go – are compounded by the above mentioned problems as well as lack of a public transport option. The choice to take a taxi is the more preferred choice since some of them feel that having permitted males drive them limits their freedom. Moreover, it has been established that the women prefer taxis driven by foreigners as compared to those driven by Saudi natives. Similarly, they cite various privacy and security reasons for this peculiar behavior, interestingly, against their own men. Some women consider the young Saudi males to be of low morals and that they will easily resort to harassing their female passengers. It is no wonder that women and some men who support the cause are now constantly demonstrating and demanding the kingdom’s officials to allow women to drive or at least establish a designated women-only bus transportation system.  Privacy and security among other reasons should therefore be considered in any plan that seeks to solve this social standoff. Moreover, the plan has to be economically friendly such as the option of instituting public transport specifically for women.


The prospect of auto-pilot cars presents itself here; whereby it will definitely rule out harassment, ensure the privacy of Saudi women is protected and limit on excessive spending. Women-only buses also offer such advantages and could be more convenient especially because they are pocket friendlier but the convenience and privacy offered by auto-pilot cars are unprecedented. Auto-pilot or self-driving cars can sense the environment around them through radar, GPS, lidar and computer vision mechanisms and thus navigate without any human input. Such vehicles could be an all-round solution because it is easy to manage daily costs and they provide adequate privacy to the women. The complex computer, radar and GPS systems update maps using sensory input and thus the passenger as well as the vehicle itself are ‘aware’ of their location at all times. This offers a great sense of security because the computer systems ensure the vehicle does not enter uncharted areas.


Auto-pilot cars therefore could be a good solution to the ban on women driving because they serve the purpose of driving them around without interfering with their privacy, safety and to some extent, finances. The women do not drive while in the cars and this serves to protect the cultural and religious underpinnings in the ban e.g. covering faces while in the cars. They still get to go wherever they need to without fearing for their safety or harassment. Auto pilot cars therefore serve the proverbial role of killing all the birds with one stone because it protects the women from all the fears associated with being driven in taxis or permitted males yet they don’t have to drive by themselves and violate the ban. The government of the Saudi Kingdom has an option in auto-pilot cars so as to preserve its interests in the ban while at the same time being sensitive to the cries of its subjects. If this option is considered too risky, expensive or otherwise inappropriate to be implemented, then the government still has the option of women-only buses.


Saudi women suffer untold misery brought by the ban on women driving. They have to contend with safety risks and emotional abuse occasioned by sexual, physical and even verbal harassment. Moreover, their finances suffer much from having to use taxis every time they need to go somewhere yet public transport would be a cheaper and more convenient means. However, the government is adamant on protecting the ban based on religious and cultural implications and therefore a solution has to serve both interests. Auto-pilot cars are a perfect solution since they cannot violate the ban and they also protect the women from their worst fears. Even though it is possible that the Saudi women could be denied the prospect of the self-driven cars, they should not be denied the option of women-only buses. Whatever choice the Saudi government takes – even if both options are not granted – Saudi women have suffered enough and should be granted freedom of mobility. Any form of their emancipation is long overdue even if the ban has to be scrapped altogether.


Reducing Anonymity would not reduce Cyber Bullying.

Reducing Anonymity would not reduce Cyber Bullying

Recently, cyber bullying has been on the rise in the social media. Increase of social media platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, twitter, and MySpace has accelerated the rise of cyber bullying. Cyber bullying includes intimidation through physical threats, intentional and purposeful embarrassment, and sexual harassment. The vice of bullying in the various online platforms has also been increased due to increasing of mobile phones use by teenagers and children. Internet use has spread among children even as low as nine years and therefore preying on them becomes an easy task to the bullies.

Cyber bullying in most cases targets the vulnerable groups as they easily give in to intimidation. These vulnerable groups include young, teenagers/young adults, and women who frequent various online platforms for social interactions. Entry into these platforms is not restricted to age or locality, and one is only known with the details they use to register. Therefore, it is very difficult to authenticate the details given by parties registering in the sites. Evidently, social platforms are full of anonymity, which acts as a backdrop for the bullies to hide from their targets. Most of the social platforms ask for correct details during the signing up process to reduce anonymity. However, the bullies keen on terrorizing other people still sign up using fake details hence remaining anonymous and free to intimidate their prey.

To reduce cyber bullying, it is important to find a way to reducing anonymity on the social platforms. Cyber bullies push their prey to the wall even to the extent of making them commit suicide. Authenticating the social media users’ details would help in reducing anonymity and assist in identifying the bullies for apprehension. However, this is not easy since new apps that promote interactions on anonymity are developed continuously. Thus, it makes it difficult to reduce anonymity and therefore does not help in cyber bullying prevention. Therefore, the Users of the apps are to free to interact the way they want and with whom they chose. Thus, the app developers ensure that they remain anonymous to attract as many users as possible. For example, Spring. Me, Ask. FM and Kik (Miners 12).

According to research conducted by Bryce and Fraser on teenage and young adult users of social media, it was found out that about 73% of them have experienced cyber bullying. Half of these users do not know the bullies due to their anonymity. Increasing incidents of cases of cyber bullying have convinced the social platforms users that cyber bullying is part of their online life and cannot be avoided. Both the adults and the teenagers agree that cyber bullying is wrong and affects them negatively but have the mentality that they can do nothing about it. This mentality is the reason most victims of the bullies suffer in silence and the pressure inserted on them driving them to harm themselves. Most cases of cyber bullying, therefore, are not reported to the relevant authorities. Lack of reporting the bullies give them confidence that they can harass anyone and get away with it (783-87).

In conclusion, even though the reduction of anonymity in the social media will make the users visible and identifiable in case of criminal offences, it might not stop cyber bullying. This is because the bullies already know that the users take harassment as a norm and cannot report them to the authorities. What ought to be done in reducing cybercrime is education of the Internet users that cyber harassment is a crime and cases of it should be reported to the authorities.

Works Cited

Bryce, Jared., and Fraser, Jones. “It’s Common Sense that it’s Wrong”: Young People’s Perceptions and Experiences of Cyber Bullying. Cyberpyschology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16.11 (2013): 783-787.

Miners, Zoe. Myspace Verdict Raises Identity Questions. District Administration, 45.1 (2009): 12.


Critique of the Movie Tangled.

Critique of the Movie Tangled

Many at times, images, sounds and other occurrences affect the way we perceive related topics about aspects that could happen to us or people with whom we associate. A week ago, while I was on the airplane with my daughter on our way to the U.S.A, I watched the movie Tangled for the third time. Each time I watch the movie, a different matter seems to crop up at the back of my mind, and this time was no different. The movie’s ironic scenes and coherent expression that intertwine with reality and blended humor left me wondering what exactly the writer wanted to convey. This movie brought up intriguing thoughts, mostly about how individuals always have choices to make, although they most often than not end up choosing what is least expected.

The difference between naivety and stupidity was once again in question. Not just from definition, but also from a descriptive yet objective standpoint. This is a question that when evaluated from dissimilar vantage points, be it objective or subjective, can present a wide range of views. In most cases, naivety is inevitable at the initial stages of growth, before experience and maturity are acquired. This is what is observed with Rapunzel, who is the main character in this movie.  She is kidnapped, but later commences a journey to rediscover herself by exploring the outside world.

Conversely, others may view Rapunzel as naive and stupid in the sense that she took too long, until she was 19 before she set out for a journey that made her meet the prince. She finds her freedom through this new relationship.  Rapunzel meets her parents, who are now a queen and a king. The question that arises is: how long does it take a person to rediscover himself or herself?

In conclusion, it is impossible to establish the degree of an individual’s stupidity or naivety. What is certain is that none of the qualities remains the same after they encounter various situations. Although people may get more confused than they were before, most get enlightened and acquire skills of tackling even newer challenges. Tangled is a movie that needs an open-minded person to understand the complex concepts of life it presents.


Abortion is the process that comprises exterminating the products of conception knowingly (Goffman, 1963). The question whether this is right or wrong, legal or illegal is a matter of logic. Again, it is a topic that has been widely controversial, even though it has occurred for ages. Circumstances that led to the conception are sometimes addressed when evaluating whether it is right to terminate a pregnancy. In instances where victims were sexually assaulted, it becomes evident that their liberties were violated. This scenario offers consolation in destroying the growing fetus for the victims to resume their lives.          According to (Goffman, 1963), women are qualified to be persons with sound minds. Consequently, the decisions they make concerning their reproductive systems are assumed sound. Any person should not interfere with decisions they may opt to make concerning their wellbeing.

In most states, the illegality of abortion rests with a person who does it. A case where a medical practitioner assists a woman to commit abortion is illegal. On the other hand, if another person assists a woman, who is not a medical practitioner, commits abortion; then that is legal. If a woman is seriously ill, or a developing fetus is detected to be dangerous to the survival of a woman, abortion is justified in this case in order to save the mother.

In conclusion, people should embrace the practice of abortion. This should be based on the prevailing circumstances that justify abortion to be executed in favor of the woman or a girl. However, in cases where the action stands to complicate the health or fatality of individuals, it is advisable to retain the pregnancy. The baby could be given up for adoption upon conception because it is a life of its own.



Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York:



An analysis of The Pearl by John Steinbeck.

An analysis of The Pearl by John Steinbeck


This essay is based on the critical analysis of the book by John Steinbeck named ‘The Pearl’. This is the story in which every event is linked to that of the other. The main characters of this story are Juana and Kino as they are crucial for the story plot. The whole story is based on the events that are major and these events creates hurdles that must be passed by both Juana and Kino (Jackson). These events are linked with the main theme of the story and how the protagonist is impacted by these events (French). Thus, this paper will analyze and examine the literary device such as characters, narrators, voice and setting of the story plot. At the start of the story, the author of the book, John Steinbeck presents us the introduction of the main characters (Juana, Kino and Coyotito) of the story in La Paz, which is a small town. From the start of the story, the author has created events that shaped the story and impacted on the characters. In the beginning of the story the main characters  namely Juana and Kino experience their first obstacle (Jackson). Coyotito, who is the only child of Juana and Kino is stung by a Scorpion and in order to pay for the expenses of the treatment of the child, Kino sets out in search of a pearl. The story’s climax is when the main character of the story Kino, obtains the pearl miraculously and is overwhelmed that what this miraculous pearl can do for him (French).  Thus, Kino is blinded from the gifts of the pearl and this leads to his son Coyotito being shot from the tracker’s bullet. As the story progresses and reach its conclusion, Kino realizes his mistakes and learns that how greed has blinded him. Here we can see the main resolution of the story that is Kino realizes that what greed has done to his family and himself (French). When Kino learns that the pearl is cursed, Kino throws it into the ocean.  All this make him perceive that greed is a curse and there are more crucial things in life such as health, family and life itself.


Critical Analysis of the Novel

As we can see in the story, there are many events that are interlinked with each other. The first effect and its cause is when the only son of Kino and Juana is stung by Scorpion and he is taken to the doctor by Juana (French).  As Kino and Juana are living a life in poverty and the doctor asks too much for the treatment of Coyotito, they are unable to pay. So, the doctor refuses Coyotito’s treatment as Juana and Kino cannot give the sum of fees to the doctor. This event leads to another event which is when Kino goes to search for the pearl of the world that can save the life of their son. In order for their son to be cured, Juana prays that they find the pearl so that their son can be treated (Jackson).  This second event changes the life of Kino forever. The author have portrayed the example of ‘Kino’ as an ordinary man that is faced with the hazards of poverty and the daily issues faced by the poor. From the beginning till the finish, the novel shows how Kino is developed drastically (Jackson). At the start, we can see that the character of Kino is that of a loyal husband and a kind man. But as the story progresses, when Kino finds the pearl his character changes and he transforms into an ‘animal’ i.e. a man driven mad by freed and for money he can do anything (French).

Kino is an arrogant, but a strong-willed character as he beliefs in himself. It can be seen in the first event that when his son Coyotito is bitten by the Scorpion, how Kino goes to endless boundaries to search for the pearl. Eventually, his strong will help him find the pearl but this changes everything. When the pearl is found, a commotion that is great is made b the village of Kino but Kino doesn’t agree to the deal of the buyer. Instead, he becomes outraged and thinks that he is being cheated and swindled. Kino knew that the price of the pearl is way more than what the buyer has quoted. Because of his arrogance, Kino is attacked many times and this lead to his abode being burnt down (French).  Kino is filled with greed and this clouds his decisions. In order to reach the place of fame and riches, Kino loses his only child. He faces many hurdles in this path but eventually fives up the aspiration of wealth. He realizes that this pearl has only given him sufferings and greed drives a person insane. He gives up the pearl and comprehends that family, life and health are more important than any other thing in the world.  Another major character of this story is George. He is a quick witted, small and an intelligent person who is just similar to a father figure to watch over Lennie. Lennie is a lumbering child who is big and gets into a lot of problems due to the disability of mental capacities. Similar to Kino, Lennie and George also dream of living off from this world of poverty and ‘hit something big’ that can change their lives.
            In the initial phase we can see that how content Kino is despite of the fact that he lacks material things. At this time, he cares nothing more but just his family and how to support them. But life is full of surprises and misfortunes (Jackson). Their life is changed when their only son is stung by the scorpion which leads Kino to a journey to obtain the ‘Pearl of the world’. There begins the journey of Kino and his transformation from a kind and loyal person to a greedy and arrogant fool. After through searching for many hours, Kino eventually finds a pearl that is spectacular. A pearl that can make all their dreams come true.  Once finding the pearl, Kino at first decides to sell this pearl and pay of the fees of the doctor so that his son can be treated. But later he changes his mind and wonders that how much money he can get when he sell the pearl to the right bidder (Jackson).  Thus, begins the path of greed for Kino and his suddenly runs for the material possessions. He dreams that his son will finally be able to go to school. His son will be educated and will be a different person, not like the other  people of the village. He thinks that when he will be rich he can have a higher status and fame (Jackson). With his newly found wealth and fortune ‘The Pearl’, Kino jots down a list of things to do when he will obtain the wealth. One thing he list is that he will buy a rifle so that he can show the members of the village that he is the powerful one. When Kino is indulged in these thoughts he loses control of his true self. He becomes greedy and selfish and thus forgets about his family (Jackson).
When the pearl is taken by Kino to the right buyer, it a event that is great as almost every person in the village is curious to know how much the pearl will go for, how much Kino will benefit from the sale. When the bidding is done, Kino is offered by the buyer pesos one thousand. Kino becomes furious as he know that the pearl is worth way more than this meager quoted price (Jackson).  He becomes outrageous and rejects the offer. This shows another example of greed from Kino. The main fact the author highlighted is that the classes of Society were very widely spread at that time. There was a huge gap between he upper class and the lower class. At that time, there was no concept of a middle class. People were either rich or poor and unlike today there existed no middle class. So, this story is also about the picturing of the image of the society at that time. Steinbeck has shared his point of view with the help of his literature and writings. This book ‘The Pearl’, is a story that is an eye opener for the society and the problem it is facing (Jackson). At that time people were not treated with justice and equally. There was a lot of social inequality and through his literary works, the author tries to convince the people to push into a world that is just and fair. The writer is an advocate for the reforms of society.

This story illustrates a deep moral sense and is a simple tale as how greed can change a person. The readers can get a glimpse of what society was at that time and can get the picture of the social reforms portrayed by the author. The present, past and the readers of the tale are able to bring this book alive with that of the morals.  The author signifies that people have high hopes to change their lives and living standards (Jackson).  He also showed that a person can turn evil when he becomes greedy and too much change is also bad. In the Pearl, we can see clearly that there are variety of roles in the society that are played by the people who are born into their role. The writer has made us feel the pain and sorrow that is felt by the Family of Kino when they are poor. But the writer also says that changing too much is not always  the answer. With his story, the writer have shown the readers that what our world is actually like and has described the characteristics of human nature (Jackson).  As we can see that at that time, there was no concept of equality. It wasn’t even appreciated to do justice. The status of the person was categorized by their wealth and riches. Today, we can see that people are given a fair chance to change their lives and there exists a concept of equality. But at that time, there was no such concept. The label the society prints on the person creates a big impact on their lives. As the story progresses and reach its conclusion, Kino realizes his mistakes and learns that how greed has blinded him. Here were can see the main resolution of the story that is Kino realizes that what greed has done to his family and himself (Jackson).



In short, ‘The Pearl’ is the story of the transformation of a good person into an evil one because of the vultures of greed and enviousness. John Steinbeck is a great author as he has won the noble prize in Literature as well. This parable and story is about the transformation of the life of a  happy family into a miserable one (Jackson).  The blame can be given to the society as social inequality leads to greed , enviousness and many other evils. Kino is a Mexican Indian who lives in the California Gulf in La Paz (Jackson). As  our author, Steinbeck has a lot of love for the biology of the oceans, that is the reason we can see a lot of imagery in his writings that related to seas and oceans (Jackson).  The Pearl of Kino is s symbol universally used to describe the things that were disastrous and happened in the life of Kino and his family. So, this story is a tragic ending as our hero ‘Kino’ is not able to achieve his dreams and ambitions. Instead his end is described terrible than the one before. In most of the stories of Steinbeck, we can see that the main character have dreams and ambitions which they want desperately. This story is about the character ;Kino; who had list his child and also his prized finding ‘the Pearl’ and all because of greed.

Work Cited

French, Warren. John Steinbeck’s fiction revisited. Twayne Publishers, 1994.

Jackson J. Benson (Ed.). (1990). The short novels of John Steinbeck: critical essays with a checklist to Steinbeck criticism. Duke University Press.

Is it worth to study in College?

Is it worth to study in College?


Studying is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills through reading books or examining the world. It is an act of spending time discovering information or investigating a particular thing or subject. A college is a place where learners study after high school, with limited and flexible courses (Wolf, 77).

Many people have different views on whether it is worth to join college or not. It is believed that studying at college is advantageous in a number of ways. First, it is flexible. Most of the programs in colleges are offered at night when people have left jobs. This enables a good number of people to access education while doing other things that support their families. In addition, students can make special arrangements on when to attend their lessons, without unnecessary pressure from their tutors. The cost of education in colleges is cheaper than in universities. This is a motivator for those who come from poor families. According to the U.S National Center for Educational Statistics, 7.2 million students were expected to attend 2-year institutions in 2014. This is a greater enrolment that shows the affordability of college education. Colleges have enabled those students who are less motivated to continue with their education since the duration spent in colleges is shorter than universities (Archibald and Robert 98).  For instance, college students in most colleges in the U.S take two years to complete their courses as compared to university students, who take four years. Statistics show that those who join college are later motivated to progress with their studies up to university level. Colleges offer an enriched social network to students from different backgrounds. This is because those who commute from home can interact with colleagues in college and people with whom they interact.

On the contrary, others view going to college as disadvantageous. Surveys that have been done on courses offered in colleges in the  U.S show that many community colleges offer associate degrees, diplomas and certificate programs. This may affect students who may want to pursue other courses, which may be lacking in those colleges. In addition, it is believed that the worldview of college student might be narrow as they of their time in college. Most colleges in the U.S do not offer boarding facilities as compared to universities.

Looking this issue from a critical point of view, I agree that it is worth to study in a college. This is because it gives opportunity to those who fail to excel highly in high school to continue with their studies and realize their dreams. Besides, colleges give opportunities to the working class and elderly a chance to advance their studies and enrich their worldview. In the year 2012, the U.S National Center of Statistics revealed that there were13 million students in colleges under the age of 25. Comparatively, there were 8 million students who were above 25 years, in colleges. I strongly disagree by the view that colleges narrow the worldview of students. This is because students who purely stay in college facilities lack first-hand experience on what happens in the outside world, especially, in social functions.



Joining a college is a wise decision to make rather than failing to progress with your education, after high school. Many successful scholars have written motivating stories on how enriching college life can be to a person who is determined to realize his dream. Many of these scholars started from this level and later advanced. Colleges offer effective training and important skills to students that enable them solve the challenges they meet in their daily lives. Joining college is indeed a stepping-stone to greater achievement.


Works Cited

Archibald, Robert & David. Why does College Cost Much? New York: Oxford University press, 98, 20011.

Wolf Wendell. “ Models of  Excellence: The Baccalaureate Origins of Successful European

Women, African American Women, and Latinas.” The Journal of Higher Education,     69(2): 141-162.

The Aesthetic Power of Theatre.

Title: The Aesthetic Power of Theatre


            Aesthetics is the philosophical investigation into the nature of beauty and the perception of beauty in any artistic work. If individuals watch the performance of The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Berthold Brecht on stage, they will agree with this. The performance starts with two communes, the Collective Fruit Farm and the Collective Fruit Farm who are engaged in a dispute over a piece of land. The actors here are dressed in old clothes; the old men have walking sticks. This brings out the setting, which is a village in the prologue, when the play is read. In addition, the choices of costumes for these actors mark their social class. The performance brings out the actors, who represent the two communes, as a desperate group. The tone of characters enables individuals deduce their bitterness, especially, from the Collective Goat Farm, who through their moving narration reveal how their goat product has been affected.

Conversely, a powerful presentation from one actor who paints a clear picture on how the Collective Fruit Farm is given. The Galnisk, suffers as they try to defend this disputed piece of land. In his hand are the improvised rifles that they used to defend the disputed land. This depicts the magnitude of the danger and suffering they underwent. As the prologue ends, soft music is heard, which brings out the reconciliatory mood. Suddenly, a singer from the backstage, dressed in a long robe like a priest, comes on stage and starts narrating, as the audience cheers him for his oratory skills. The improvisation here is appropriate as it makes the performance moving and memorable. It also highlights the suffering of the masses.

The theme of social classes is clearly brought out.  The actors who represent the governor’s family are expensively dressed. Their security is tight, armed men guard them. A baby toy rubbed in linen represents the governor’s baby. This shows this is a royal family. At the back stage, ringing bells signal portray proximity to the church. What surprises most is the way the governor ignores desperate masses as he is headed to the Easter Mass. They are wiped, and the modulation of the bridge music brings out the force these iron shirts use to scare the masses as they wrestle for the few coins which the governor throws. Surely, this is arguably high levels of insensitivity to humanity.

The theme of courage and human sacrifice is brought out. A humbly dressed girl rescues the baby. The turbulent music, which is heard from the back stage, signals a tensed mood. The actors run on stage, as the governor’s wife is busy ordering the workers to bring her expensive golden and silver dresses. The question that arises is whether this is the right moment for her to concentrate on clothes. This presentation brings out the materialistic nature of humanity. In addition, it captures the idea that in society the less fortune in the society are more human.

In scene two and three, themes of determination and courage dominate. The dressing of the soldiers who are seeking the innocent child is scaring. First, they are very big and armed yet what they are looking for is an armless, thin boy who cannot offer any resistance if they get him. The choice of these actors and their dressing appropriately fits the author’s description of the soldiers in the play. The actor, dressed like a woman, sits down and tries to breast-feed this toy baby, which effectively captures the author’s intention of desperation of the maid as she tries to rescue the child. However, the stage is limited, in terms of space and lighting, and the events are concealed to most of the audience. The fading and flashing lights signal how the days lapsed.

The arrival of the desperate Gresham in her brother’s house triggers evaluation from a new perspective. The brother organizes a marriage for her sister, with a dying man. The question arises whether this is the best way to treat a helpless sister regardless of the ‘crimes’ she has committed. The choice of characters here is most appropriate as it brings out the themes of hypocrisy and cowardice. Through the singer’s song, the audiences get to know what ails him, he fears war. This is clearly in line with the play, though the actors do not explicitly give the details. This scene is moving and memorable as it is coined with sadness and humor, which breaks the tension and provokes laughter.

The last two scenes are dramatic and moving. An actor dressed in black pants shelters a middle-aged man expensively dressed. The two represent Azdak and the Grand Duke respectively. Later, the man in black pants is appointed a judge after they are engaged in a minor play, which determines who becomes the judge. This scene brings out the playwrights ability to manipulate language by the same character playing different roles. This, in my opinion, is effective as it simplifies the plot.


The performance of Bertolt’s play on stage enables us to understand his message clearly. It utilizes the various components on the stage such as language, lighting, sounds, music, clothing, setting, themes and stylistic features of a play to capture the situation of the society. In addition, it enables the viewers to conceptualize abstract concepts in the in the play and relate them with their own experiences. Lastly, it gives the viewers the opportunity to give a critique of the use of language and the general organization of the play to pass a message.

Work Cited

Brecht, Bertold. The Caucasian Chalk Circle. Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1-89, 1999.