Question one

Schema theory emerged as the linguistics psychologists and cognitive psychologists tried to understand the interactions of various factors that affected the comprehension process of individuals (Hawke, Provencher & Martin, 2011). The theory therefore states that knowledge is organized into units and within the units of knowledge, information is usually stored.  Therefore, the theory is about understanding knowledge and how this knowledge is represented.  Schemata are used to represent knowledge about various concepts such as events situations, actions sequence of events and actions. A good example is the schema of dogs. In this schema, individual is aware about various characteristic about the dog such as their hair, behavior, barking, number of legs, teeth hand their mode or reproduction among others. In application to reading and comprehension, people have schema for everything. This schema usually develop schemata or units of knowledge a bout the things they experience. Therefore, this becomes theories about reality, which affect how information is interpreted affecting comprehension. They also continue to change as new information is received. Therefore, it helps in understanding how information is processed.

It is important for those involved in developing public health campaigns to understand how people process information to be able to use the appropriate strategies to reach them. The major purpose of communication is to foster understanding (Hawke, Provencher & Martin, 2011).  Therefore, they have to realize that people have different experiences and this affects the way they comprehend information. Therefore, they need to use simple languages that will enhance understanding. Not everybody understands the health terminologies. Because people organize information for cognitive economy advertisers therefore are required to select the message decisively to impact their campaign. They should give relevant information that the people want to hear instead of giving information that is not of their interest. For instance, they should give the information about health that affects their daily lives.

Question four

Uses and gratification theory is one the media theory that seeks to explain why people use media. The theory suggests that people use media for various reasons among them for their own self-gratification as the theory contended.  The premises why people use media include for social interaction. They want to get information to enhance or facilitate discussion with others (Blumler & Katz, 1974). Others use media for relaxing to release pressure; their motive is to seek information to be abreast with the current events that are going across the world (Mondi, Woods & Rafi, 2008). Likewise, others use media for entertainment to enjoy themselves and refresh.  Still others use media for passing time, as they have nothing to do (McQuail & Brown, 1972).  They use media for interpersonal learning motive to be able to understand other people’s minds. Others use media for companionship to alleviate loneliness especially when they do not have any constructive job before them.

People use various medium to get the gratifications they want.  For the 65 years retired man from Jonesboro, the most suitable medium of using and achieving gratification is through television.  At 65 year, the man only requires information about events that happens around the world. He also requires to relax and therefore television is a good medium for entertaining. Furthermore, television has different content that are relevant to the lives of the old man. The old ma will be able to receive information on how he should live healthy when out of employment. In addition, the old man will be able to manage his boredoms at home by watching television. He will alleviate loneliness and television will keep him company. Therefore, it is the most preferable medium for the old man to use.



Blumler, J. & Katz, E.  (1974). The Uses of Mass Communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Hawke, L., Provencher, D., & Martin, D. (2011). Schema Theory and Schema Therapy in Mood   and Anxiety Disorders: A Review, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(4): 257-276.

Halford, W., Bernoth-Doolan, S., & Eadie, K. (2002). Schemata as moderators of clinical             effectiveness of a comprehensive cognitive behavioral program for patients with         depression or anxiety disorders. Behavior Modification, 26(5), 571–593.

McQuail, D., & Brown, R.  (1972). The television audience: a revised perspective’ in D.    McQuail (ed.): Sociology of Mass Communication. London: Longman

Mondi, M., Woods, P., & Rafi, A. (2008). A ‘Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model’ to          predict students’ ‘Perceived e-Learning Experience,’ Journal of Educational Technology        & Society, 11(20: 241-261.