MMPI-2 stands for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and it is very common in metal health, particularly in the objective personality tests. Yossef Ben-Porath and Auke Tellegen developed MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) which is the most recent version. It has been noted that MMPI-2 is engaged by professionals who are trained in facilitating psychopathology and in personality structures. MMPI-2 is engaged in a number of areas particularly among the security agencies in the United States, in areas where individuals are offered with extensive responsibility for property and life among other critical areas.
MMPI-2 was part of MMPI revision and dates back to 1989. Standardization was based on a national sample that was conducted for adults in America. The model is best suited for persons aged eighteen years and above. Original clinical scales had diverse variations and clinicians are expected to be careful while interpreting the clinical scales (Dao et al., 2008). It takes roughly one to two hours to administer MMPI-2, and sixth grade reading level is advisable. There is a shorter version of MMPI-2 that is applied in special cases due to time constraints and illnesses among other critical variables. MMPI-2 is common with an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and also in achievement tests (Nichols, 2011).
In correctional facility setting, it has been noted that the Pd scale elevations are particularly high. Associations among Sc scales, Pd scales and aggressive acting is a common pattern observed in the correctional facility setting. Surveys indicated that MMPI-2 is preferred in correctional facility setting based on its objectivity in scoring and on standardized administration (Forbey et al., 2009). MMPI-2 help in legal accountability, volume, need for security and on the nature of the clientele involved. Assessment offer critical information in regards to the prisoners that are used by the correctional staffs in diverse ways.
Surveys done on Caucasians and African Americans have shown no differences, although MMPI-2 scores for female offenders varied with the MMPI-2 scores for male offenders. Taking a critical consideration of sex offenders as an example, MMPI-2 is engaged in identifying low risk offenders and high risk offenders (Gilmore et al., 2001). MMPI-2 is also engaged in differentiating internet sex offenders and general sex offenders. MMPI-2 in this context is useful in identifying and classifying sex offenders and also useful in signaling the completion of the treatment programs for the offenders. There are different applications of MMPI-2 in the correctional facility setting; an example is detecting psychological dysfunction and distress among other applications (Butcher et al., 2001).
Correctional facilities are made up of individuals who are legally confined and subsequently denied freedom due to misdeeds; the actions are geared towards punishing the offenders. MMPI-2 is applied in Prisoner of War Camps, military camps, open facilities, administrative detentions, political prisons and in psychiatric facilities. MMPI-2 is common among the professionals specializing in mental health, mainly in diagnosing and assessing illnesses related to the mind (Bagby et al., 2005). In a correctional facility setting, the results gathered by the MMPI-2 are used in legal cases, where custody disputes and criminal defense cases are involved. It has been noted that legal cases are complex and involves diverse variables that influence the actions of people, people respond differently to stimulus and MMPI-2 is used in defining the mental status of the offenders at the time of action (Groth-Marnat, 2010).
MMPI-2 is useful in correctional facility setting as well as in other fields. Legal cases particularly focusing on the mental issues find MMPI-2 useful in mining facts from fictions. Correctional staff use information gathered by MMPI-2 in diverse ways to the betterment of the offenders and correctional facilities.
Bagby, R. et al. (2005). Distinguishing bipolar depression, major depression, and schizophrenia with the MMPI-2 Clinical and Content Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment , 89–95.
Butcher, J. N. et al. (2001). MMPI–2 (Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2) manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Dao, T. K. et al. (2008). Differentiating psychotic patients from nonpsychotic patients with the MMPI-2 and Rorschach. Journal of Personality Assessment , 93–101.
Forbey, J. D. et al. (2009). Validation of the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive version (MMPI-2-CA) in a correctional intake facility. Psychological Services , 279-292.
Gilmore, J. D. et al. (2001). Adherence to substance abuse treatment: Clinical utility of two MMPI-2 scales. Journal of Personality Assessment , 524–540.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2010). Handbook of psychological assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Nichols, D. S. (2011). Essentials of MMPI-2 assessment. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.