An organizational model is a presentation of the organization that clearly and quickly provides assessment of an organization (Harrison, 2005). It helps us to understand the behavior of an organization, and to categorize and interpret data about an organization. There are various organizational models.
The first model is the congruence model, which is more comprehensive since it specifies the inputs, the throughputs and outputs in the organization or system. It has many similarities with the Leavitt’s model and keeps the informal and formal systems of the Weisbord six-box model (Chesbrough, 2006). It is used to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and specify the areas for improvement. Its strengths are that its framework is vigorous in its analysis. It is also not restricted to managers and management only. It does not depend on a particular way of designing approach to change as long as the components fit. The weaknesses are that it is time consuming and expensive to use. It also does not specify a straight formula of incorporating group dynamics.
The second model is the 7S framework model. It has seven variable that the authors call “levers” beginning with the letter S hence the name (Chesbrough, 2006). These variables are style, staff, skills, structure, strategy, systems and shared values. It is significant in determining the way an organization performs. Its major strengths are that is a good tool for diagnosing organizations that are effective. It guides and directs the organizational change. It combines hard and rational elements with emotional and soft elements. All Ss are interrelated hence they must all be acted upon in parallel. The weakness is that the use of the Ss limits the scope of cover for the diagnostic process.
Another model is the Burke-Litwin causal model, which focuses on the organizational performance and change (Chesbrough, 2006). It has twelve organizational variables, that is the external environment, leadership, management practices, motivation, task requirements and individual skills, systems, mission and strategy, structure, organizational culture, work unit climate, individual needs and values, and individual and organizational performance. Its major strengths are that it provides a complete overview since it incorporate many change factors. It focuses on the external environment as the major factor. The hierarchy and causality among the elements is distinct. It also differentiates between the variables that are influenced by organizational climate and those by culture. Its limitations are that it is a bit complex. Also some organizational changes could be set off by management or internal factors rather than by external environment.
A newer model is the organizational intelligence model (Chesbrough, 2007). It consists of eleven factors and variables that drive the employee performance and engagement. This model provides a framework for organizational diagnosis purpose. It also facilitates the design and interpretation of workers and organizational survey efforts. The organizational intelligence is significant in that it helps not only in identifying the internal factors affecting the organization, but it also helps in studying the market at large and especially the competition it faces from the outside. Also it does not depend only on the top hierarchy in making decisions, but rather through use of information technology it accommodates the thoughts of the lower employees. Its limitation is that not many people are conversant and like to use technology.
One more model is the Leavitt’s model. This is a much simple model and specifies the following variables. These are task variables, technological variables, structure variables and human variables. This model is advantageous in that it is dynamic and the variables are inter-depended. However, it is too simple to address the variables effectively. It also does not address important factors such as the effect of the external environment on the variables.
Another model is the Weisbord’s six box model (Chesbrough, 2007). This model encompasses six categories; these are purposes, structures, relationships, leadership, helpful mechanisms and rewards. It also considers the external environment but does not show it in the box. It identifies the inputs as money, people machinery and ideas used to meet the objectives of the organization. The products and services are the outputs. The Weisbord’s model focuses on the internal issues within the organization by mainly presenting diagnostic questions. Its strengths are that it is quite uncomplicated, easy to understand and visualize. The limitation is that it is only based logic and there is no proof of its working. It also is based on the notion that only agreement between employer and employees results in more organizational effectiveness and performance.
The last model to consider is the Tichy’s Technical Political Cultural (TPC) Framework. Tichy’s model has inputs, throughputs and outputs (Chesbrough, 2007). It identifies key variables of input as the environment, history and resources. The throughput variables are strategy, mission, tasks, people, and organizational processes and prescribed and emergent networks whereas the output variable is the organizational effectiveness.
The whole foods market is a sector that has really changed the way the world shops for food and eats. Its stores since conception have revolutionized the market of foods completely. However, as time progresses, the whole foods market is being faced by serious challenges. The main issues facing the whole foods market are competition and market un-saturation. The increased emergence of new more competitive stores such as Wal-Mart is presenting themselves as a force to be reckoned with. As a result, the whole foods market is slowly losing its fame and position as the best foods services provider.
The other issue is that of market un-saturation. The whole foods market is suffering defeat because of its inability to open more stores. The management strategies are not working well for the whole foods market, as a result, the other competing stores are overtaking them because they have opened up stores in every corner of the cities hence taking the stores to the customers.
It is in this view of the main issues facing the whole foods market that I recommend the use of the organizational intelligence in copying with the challenges. This is for the reason that the organizational intelligence does not only focus on the internal factors causing the change in the organization, but it also incorporates the external factors causing the challenges. This model also incorporates the thoughts and views of the management as well as the employees, hence providing a wider scope of source of information (Harrison, 2005). The fact that it also allows for the use of information technology makes it most suitable in combating the competition issue. Through the information gathered, the management will be able to counter the issue of putting up more stores by identifying the strategic places to put up the stores. Hence it will have solved the issue of competition by taking the products much closer to the people and also it will have saturated its available market.
Chesbrough, H. W. (2006). Open business models: How to thrive in the new innovation landscape. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Chesbrough, H. (2007). Open business models: How to thrive in the new innovation landscape. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Harrison, M. I. (2005). Diagnosing organizations: Methods, models, and processes. Thousand Oaks [u.a.: Sage Pubns Inc.