Do Colleges Discriminate Price?

Do Colleges Discriminate Price?


Price Discrimination can be seen anywhere and one of the most general examples we can see in the airlines. The airlines charge customers with varying prices widely depending on the type of class selected that is the economy, business or first class. The price is discriminating on the basis of class. When the customer booked the flight, whether it is a round trip part booking, the duration of the passenger stay in the destination before flight returning and various other factors, the price would still descriminate (Morrison). The question is that why there is any discrimination? As all the passengers are cohabiting the same airplane so why some passengers have to pay more and some have to pay less?

This is the same situation with the Colleges and Higher Education Prices. Colleges and universities also discriminate similarly in the case highlighted of the airlines. The colleges discriminate students on the basis of their class as well. There are many international students and local students studying in college (Morrison).  Some of us pay higher fees where others are studying on the basis of financial aid. So why there is discrimination among the students. All of them are studying in the same College and in the same class. So why some of the students have to pay more and the others less (Morrison). As we can see in the case of airlines, they offer extra services and facilities to the customers who have paid more and belong to first class. Similar is the case with Colleges that they also provide less services and facilities to the students who have paid less and vice versa (Morrison).

The financial aid policies can be regarded as a pricing discount for the students so those availing it means that they have paid less for the College studies. Whereas the others who pay the full amount without discount are provided more services (Waldner). These elements described show that there exists a monopoly in the discrimination of College prices. So, the question is: How the net tuition (Price) level is chosen to each student and offered on what basis? Are these prices the same or are there significant differences? How does the price discrimination perfect monopoly choses the price that each customer is to be offered? Yes, I agree that Colleges disriminate Prices.

Critical Analysis

            The term Price discrimination is the selling practice of the same service or good with various prices to different customers. When the market is imperfectly competitive than price discrimination occurs ( This happens when the product is sold by the producers reflecting the price where the buyer is willing to pay. An example can be that if you have your own business, you would sell your goods to those customers who are willing to pay higher prices. But in order to do so you have to check the worth of the customers and have to read their minds (Waldner). The case of price discrimination is the consumers are inferred by the seller to pay a certain price willingly by different means (Waldner).

Another common example of this discrimination of price can be seen when you watch a movie. It can be seen that different people pay different prices for tickets. Some pay high whereas some pay less. Rich people pay more and the students pay less. This is because students on average have a disposable income that is less so that is why the prices are discriminated to bring it to the level of the students. As we can see that is why students are getting discount as their willingness to pay high price for the ticket is less as compared to the rich citizens (Waldner).  The cinema charges more to those customer who are affluent and give them special seats as they have paid more. So, we can see that price discrimination is everywhere. The more a person pays the more facilities and benefits he can avail (Waldner).

The main problem with price discrimination is that the seller doesn’t know how much the buyer is willing to pay. So the seller must find various ways to figure out this information. In the example of a movie theater, the seller (Cinema) infers the pay willingness with the help of the students status and demographics (Ho & Sita).  Also, the seller needs to create such situations which prevents every customer to pay the same. The main aim of any business is to earn profits and it can only be possible if there is a price discrimination (Ho & Sita).  If all the consumers pay the same than the margin of profit is less. So, in order to avoid this the sellers infer the information of finding the status of students. Another thing to avoid by the seller is that of arbitrage (Ho & Sita).

When we can see the example of Colleges, they also price discriminate. The prices of the fees of college are listed in the website. So, how come there are students that pay less and those who pay more. The discrimination in College prices means that one student is studying with the help of financial aid. It means that these students have got special discount in the prices. Whereas, the other students without financial aid pay the highest Price. The scholarship and financial aid students are given subsidies and discounts as they are unable to afford the full tuition fees. So, this create price discrimination among the students and in Colleges (Ho & Sita).

The Colleges also follow the same process as we can see in the example of movie theater above. Colleges also infer and reap out the information of each of the students by making the student fill out detailed financial information during the college process of application (Waldner).

Colleges are aware that each student have different family background and status. Some of them are unable to pay full fees whereas some of them can afford full fees. So, they discriminate the prices so that each tuition fees package is individualized (Dynarski). In this way the Colleges ensures that not every student pay the least price. Another thing arises is that there is no concept of arbitrage in the college education. As it is not a movie ticket which can be sold at a higher level, the college fees cannot be resold to the other. So, it eliminates the risk of arbitrage for the students (Ho & Sita).   It can be seen that many of the top universities of the world might cost less than a degree a student obtains from the college of local state. In 2012, we can see that Harvard had given a financial aid of around $ 12,000 to its students whose families have been earning less than $ 65,000 annually. These students have to pay zero fees as they were studying in scholarship. Whereas the other Harvard students have to pay full fees. However, gaining admission in Harvard is difficult, only  6% students got admission there (Dynarski).

This can be regarded as a positive development as the discrimination in prices makes the higher education affordable for significant number of students. President Obama have threatened the Universities and colleges to reduce price discrimination otherwise He will cut of the financial funding of the universities (Dynarski). Those policies that hampers the school’s ability to discriminate prices controls the increase in the prices of tuition fees. So, the lower income students are unable to get access to these colleges as they cannot afford (Dynarski). The graph indicates that the prices sticker of the Four year nonprofit institutions increased to around 60% in the years between 1994 to 2014.

One of the ultimate example of price discrimination is paying for the College. Colleges tailor their tuition fees according to the status of each student. As the Colleges are not getting good at this prices of price discrimination, they are charging higher sticker prices for those who are Elite so that the less unfortunate students can get access to higher education (Becker). So, we can say that financial aid and price discrimination is positive as it gives the unfortunate and low income students the chance to receive higher education (Dynarski).


In short, we can say that the discrimination in price can lead to increased profits for the seller. In the case of a nonprofit institution, these profits are reinvested in the College itself in the form of financial aid and scholarships to the needy students. There are certain reforms that are needed in the Higher education (Becker). As the increase in the ticker prices is more likely to backfire. This can reduce the schools generosity to give financial aid making the low income individuals unable to access College (Waldner).  Thus, we can say that the Price discrimination in colleges essentially means charging different prices from each student for the same level of service.



Work Cited

Becker, Gary S. The economics of discrimination. University of Chicago press, 2010.

Dynarski, Susan. “The behavioral and distributional implications of aid for college.” American Economic Review 92.2 (2002): 279-285.

Ho, Ben, and Sita Slavov. ‘Higher College Tuition Costs Don’t Actually Spell Disaster For Students – US News’. US News & World Report. N.p., 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

Morrison, Richard. “Price Fixing Among Elite Colleges and Universities.” The University of Chicago Law Review (1992): 807-835.,. ‘Price Discrimination, Financial Aid, And Higher Education – Professorbainbridge.Com’. N.p., 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.,. ‘Page One Economics – St. Louis Fed’. N.p., 2014. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

Rothschild, Michael, and Lawrence J. White. “The analytics of the pricing of higher education and other services in which the customers are inputs.” Journal of Political Economy (1995): 573-586.

Waldner, George. ‘How Colleges Discriminate With Price, And Why They Must Stop’. Forbes. N.p., 2011. Web. 8 Dec. 2014.

What does culture mean to you?

  1. What does culture mean to you?
    Culture is a piece of me and is a piece of our life. Culture is a standout amongst the paramount thing to learn before you speak with others. As worldwide student I confronted a few challenges to see a few societies on the grounds that USA is multi-cultural however with time I win and I comprehend the. Society can shape our point of view of the world. It sounds methodology to apparent to attempt to be a controversy. Various studies have exhibited that people from different social orders see and see things contrastingly and that is in all likelihood in view of how their public framed the way they see the world. While I agree with this thought, I think people routinely disregard how society can be differing for each individual and consequently affected by it in a sudden way.
  2. How do you define an intercultural leader? What knowledge, skills, and attitudes do effective intercultural leaders possess?

Culture leader as I would see it who regard others what’s more comprehend the other society and effectively to speak with. He knows how to correspond with others. Likewise, since the public fortifies autonomy, people in these social orders are said to be tried in their ability to understand someone else’s point of view. They furthermore depend all the more on sober minded adapting rather than formal standards of justification and are more pugnacious, which intimates that they handles change, conflict, and different perspectives more the people from Western social orders.

  1. What do you hope to gain from this experience?

Look into different societies and connected in my future particularly in health field cause its multicultural territory. Get new companions and getting some skills. The Western culture, US, is known as individualistic or investigative, which they exhibit attention in regards to article and its qualities, and separate the things from its field when seeing them. In addition, they incline to suspecting and elucidating and they rely on upon the use of formal reason and the law of non-contradiction.

Academic and Professional ethics.

Academic and professional ethics

Academic ethics refers to the integrity policies and the moral code that guides all the people involved in studying, writing or using academic materials (Bleeker, 2007). The concept of ethics in academics often encompass issues related to plagiarism and cheating. As a result, it is important in ensuring that academicians maintain a high standards of rigor in their research which narrows town to honesty and credibility.Given the fact that the internet has become a quick source of academic material, there has been a relative increase in academic fraud thus the reinforcement of these ethics will go a long way into reducing incidences of academic fraud associated with cheating and plagiarism. On the same note, there is professional ethics, which unlike academic ethics, refers to an acceptable code of conduct that dictates the behavior of people, corporates and organizations. This group of ethics observes that professionals in all disciples have to exhibit high standards of behavior.The importance of ethics is therefore to ensure adherence to certain set standards that guide and regulate moral issues and activities of all the participants either in academic or professional fields.

According to the Kaplan University plagiarism policy, plagiarism denotes the deliberate or undeliberate act of beaching academic and professional ethics which amounts to academic dishonesty. It is a violation of the Honor Code set by the university. Plagiarism results from an attempt to recycle owns work in another course or another semester, failure to give credit to the author of a given course work, inaccurate citations of another person’s work and failure to paraphrase words that have been stated by another writer. The Plagiarism Clarification clause of the Academic Integrity Policy used at Kaplan University identifies that the students have to ensure that their work has to be original and it should also include appropriate citations and acknowledgement of external sources that have been utilized in completing the coursework, assignment and projects (Elke, 2014). The scope of the policy covers information extracted from computer programs, discussion boards, marketing plans, past papers, other assignments and PowerPoint presentations. The policy further states that plagiarism could also include purchasing of academic papers from online writing companies and submitting the same as owns personal work.Tricia (2012), cites that the most common sources of plagiarism include electronic media, either primary or secondary published materials, and opinions or information that has been gathered directly from third parties.

The three levels of consequence for people who violate plagiarism policies are classified under sanctions where the Academic Integrity Policy specifies the first offense has to be punished with failure in the assignment that has been plagiarized or identified with academic malpractice. The second level of offense will include failure in the class, which has been identified with the academic breach, and the third level offense involves permanent dismissal or expulsion of the offender from the University. It is noted that Kaplan University holds academic ethics and professional ethics at its core and this is the reason why violators are charged as per the University policies after which they are permanently recorded into the University’s databases (Elke, 2014). An offense committed in one program at the University will be carried forwards to subsequent programs that a student re-enrolls at the Kaplan University.

The process of instituting these charges against the perpetrator requires that the course instructor has to notify the student of the charges associated with academic fraud identified in their work. The instructor then has to forward the charge to the Provost’s Office through writing. The Provost’s Office then sends the student a copy of the Kaplan University’s Integrity Policy and a notification that the student has been involved in academic dishonesty (Elke, 2014). The charge is then filed at the Provost’s Office under a specific database for charges against academic dishonesty. The violator that has been convicted for academic violation has the right to make an appeal to the relevant authorities such as an appeal board.

The process of avoiding a charge against academic dishonesty emerges from the realization that academic fraud entails a wide array of academic malpractices of which plagiarism is part. Some academic dishonest may result from misinformation or complete lack of information on how certain things have to be done. For instance, some students fail to understand that failure to reference a given academic work that is not originally there is an offence. As a result, it is highly recommended that the teachers and instructors have to dedicate their time towards teaching the students the different forms of academic dishonesty and how they can be avoided (Sullivan, 2010). On the other hand, the students have to plan their time wisely so as to avoid last minute rushes especially when handling assignments. This is because rushing through an assignment could tempt a student into directly copying content from web pages or participating in collusion. The first step towards avoiding charge is therefore to plan properly and ensure that the assignments are completed in time so that the student can pass it through plagiarism detection software programs that will identify unintentional forms of plagiarism.

The second way to avoid academic dishonesty is by talking to the professor or the instructor. In the event that a student realizes that he or she is time barred, the best decision could be to talk to the instructor on the possibility of granting an extension. This is because it is much better getting a deduction on the final grade because of extending the submission time rather than becoming a victim of academic dishonesty. The third option is to read the syllabus and the course content for each class. A student who reads the syllabus is more informed on academic dishonesty and other relevant information that will be important. This will help in seeking for assistance whenever faced with a dilemma that is likely to result into academic dishonesty such as copying of exams. The fourth way of avoiding charge against academic dishonesty is by understanding the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is an acceptable academic practice that entails restating another person’s words. On the contrary, plagiarism is the process of presenting another person’s work without giving due credit (Elke, 2014). In order to avoid plagiarism, the students have to learn how to use academic formatting styles such as the American Psychological Association (APA) format or MLA.

Joseph, (2007) states that personal choices have a direct impact on the life goals of a person. This includes the realization that these choices impact on academic and professional careers of a person. Examples of personal choices range from the decision to work independently, the decision to collude during exams, the decision to advance academically, the decision to advance a person’s profession and lastly the decision to influence other people into making personal choices. A person who makes a right decision in each of these classifications is likely to have a good track record which amounts to professional ethics. Therefore the best plan of action for maintaining both professional and academic ethics is the inert belief in self-capabilities. This is because believing in one’s self will enable a person to conduct themselves in a manner that is honest thus preventing them from participating in academic dishonesty.



Bleeker, K. (2007). To Be Honest: Championing Academic Integrity in Community Colleges. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Elke, K. (2014). What You Need to Know about Plagiarism. Chicago: Kaplan University Writing Centre.

Joseph, J. (2007). Ethics in the Workplace.New York: Oxford University Press

Sullivan, B. (2010). Academic Dishonesty in Higher Education: The Impact of a Student Development. London: Penguin Books.

Tricia, G. (2012). Twenty-First Century Forces Shaping Academic Integrity.Academic Integrity in the Twenty-First Century, 2(1), 65–78.

Diversity and City innovation.

Diversity and City innovation

Innovation is the foundation of long-term development of a nation. The central role played by innovation accords it a central role in the policy and planning of any economy. Duranton and Puga (1456) posit that diversity witnessed in the urban centers is a major source of innovative activity. Emerging studies postulate that cultural diversity increases the chances of a city being creative. The knowledge drawn from the numerous cultures in the cities is a major impetus for new and multipronged thinking approaches. The linkages established in the culturally diverse cities act as appealing factors for the innovative people. This paper seeks to amplify the scope of the research to include the entire town as opposed to the theoretical studies, which restrict their focus to the firms. The paper will centers in London as an acutely cosmopolitan city. The focus of the paper will be on how the cultural diversity assists London companies in the innovation process.

Diversity is the difference in opinion practices and norms that is displayed in a particular section of the society. In essence, diversity means differences that are evident among a certain group of people. It is easy to not the variety since it just calls for the comparison of the different groups of people in the society. However, cultural diversity ‘s hard to identify in the community since there are various groups of people that practice different things. The practices of the population do not necessarily define the precepts of the cultural diversity since for a practice to be an edict of diversity, there is a need for widespread application. Therefore, for the basis of this research, the bounds of the definition of cultural diversity will be constrained to ethnicity and nationality of the innovators.

Diversity is an asset to any organization and a city at large since it brings different approaches to the brainstorming process. According to past studies, teams made of culturally diverse members often have better approaches to the problems. There is less constraint or imposition of a certain way of thinking about the various organizations. Cultural diversity is specifically crucial in teams operating in knowledge-intensive environments. Diasporic linkages created by the minorities are often useful in the development of innovative approaches and subsequent commercialization of an innovation.

Diasporic linkages are the connections that the immigrants have to their homeland. In most of the nations where the majority of the immigrants in London come from, a close-knit community benefits from their connections. Sustenance of the relationships is vital for the immigrants and the communities in the nations of origin since they are sources of social capital. Therefore, the diverse immigrants can innovate with the help of the social connections. Therefore, the higher the diversity in the city the greater the tendency of innovation.

The common perception is that entrepreneurs of diverse backgrounds are important players in the outlook of the urban change. The fact that the urban innovators are not influenced by the local and dominant culture makes them more open to new ways of doing things compared to the indigenous business owners. The open-minded approach widely applied by the diversified entrepreneurs makes them highly innovative. The diversified entrepreneurs also have a unique opportunity for the development of international markets. The fact that they are successful and from a certain region qualify them into automatic intermediaries for the businesses in their local countries.  Contributions of the innovative entrepreneurs of diversified origins automatically affect the innovation of the city from where they operate.  Their international linkages create the possibility of production of hybrid products such that their market expand to the rest of the world.

Safeguard diversity is necessary. According to this view, diversity lures human capital, vitalize innovation and guarantee variety of groups to     justice and equal access. Strengthening diversity in the society will help in attaining economic achievement.

Cities are not endlessly inventive, however, and innovation degree are not uniform or evenly spread over space and time.  Even if most of the economically significant institutional and technological adjustment have been established and developed in town -like region, this does not imply that all towns are creative. Cities singly are innovative spaces, but not every city is inventive. Most cities are at no time noted for being creative. There has to be an integration of a particular feature at specific times for cities innovation to be fierce. The failure of dissimilar cities to expand, maintain development and innovation may result from hurdles in complementing technology with institutional dispositions and supply side factors with demand side factors.

Innovation is highly concentrated in the areas of spatial concentration as opposed to the other parts that may have dispersed population. Therefore, the urban cities such as London play a central duty in the innovation of the entire nation. This means that the spatial concentration is a primary source of spillover of knowledge, composition of knowledge according to sectors and a large pool of skilled labor to drive the production process.  The economic diversity and prosperity normally witnessed in the cities is determined by the level of diversity that fosters in the cities. Most of the research focuses on the economic diversity. However, there are various pointers to the role of cultural diversity in the fostering of innovation in the urban area. The evidence supporting the role of the cultural diversity is inconclusive.

Innovation is turning to be the coin of the land. In past years, an increasing figure of economists have come to comprehend that it is not so much the accretion of extra capital that is the vital to improving the standards of living, rather it is innovation.

Innovations befall when persons with high degrees of existing innovation or knowledge make advanced and novel integration of this knowledge with a new perception observed through spillovers. Individuals need a high level of expertise to engage in novelty. An extensive and advanced knowledge of the initial duties will provide ideas into how to make “new combinations” when new thoughts arise through spillovers.  Evidently, if one has an external knowledge of the initial tasks, it will be less obvious how to create captivating departures from that work or significant additions.

Innovation empowers the creation of new firms. This unstable, dynamic procedure of steady churn and turnover is a significant source of renewal and growth. There are considerable turbulence and volatility in the industries, reflecting the howl of creative destruction that inevitably accompanies disruptive innovation

In addition, entrepreneurial firms give substantial spillovers that influence regional employment growth rates of all companies in the region in the long run. This role of innovation as a significant growth factor is different from the historical version where containing costs was so necessary. Today, places can no longer bank solely on old economy strategies of reducing costs and providing incentives to draw locationally- mobile commodity based branch plants or offices.

Diversity and innovation is operational inside the organizations since it is possible for one to identify the relationship between the variety of the group and the innovative levels. The innovation activities are higher in the firms that have diaspora effects. However, the detriments of the diversity in the organizational context may eventually defeat the increased gains of innovation such that there will be no chance of commercializing the innovation.   Demerits of diversity also affect the rate at which the generation of the ideas takes place. This means that the reception of the people of the idea is the key to the development of an innovative environment. For instance, the people that come from the areas that are composed of the diverse communities often have ease accepting their contributions. They are able to focus on the innovation as opposed to focusing on the person generating the idea. The unbiased attention is drawn from the society. The cosmopolitan psyche of the city of London has led to the acceptance of the diverse members of the community. Therefore, the different nature of the urban environment is the primary source of the amplification of the innovation activity. The home market effects and interaction of the population also contribute to the elaboration of the innovative activities. The ethnic entrepreneurs play vital enabling roles in the diversified firms and cities.

Diversity also affects the teams that are used in the innovative process. Homogeneous teams are always taunted to be more efficient. However, this perception may be flawed since the diverse groups have different cognitive attitudes and perspectives that are often absent in the homogenous units. Homogeneous teams mostly use the mindset of the most outspoken leader since there is little that each of the members of the teams brings. Effectively, the diverse teams bring on different cognitive perspectives. Cognitive diversity is dependent on the cultural background of the person. Therefore, the cultural diversity in the group or ay functional unit in the organization is an equivalent to the cognitive diversity (Wadhwa et al. 67). Diversity may be detrimental to the organization since there are various barriers that come with it. One of the main barriers that are of particular importance in the innovation process is the lack of trust. The dominant groups in the cities may lack confidence in the products sold by the minority groups since they assume that they are inferior (Saxenian 45). It is until when the team understands how to communicate when they are capable of developing. The lack of trust and breakdowns in the communication process leads to difficulties in the resource allocation, implementation of the idea and the generation of ideas. However, the benefits of the cultural diversity largely outstrip the demerits of diversity.

Cultural diversity of a city leads to the development of new demand for products that were previously less required or not requested at all. Diversity in the town of London has resulted in the development of business openings that are both unique and feasible. For example, the city has been benefiting from the financial services that it renders. The traditional approaches towards finance have been applied for a long time such that they seemed permanent. However, this is not the case (Saxenian 45). There is an ever-increasing want for the financial sector in the city to accommodate new approaches that were traditionally nonexistent. The fiscal sector has been forced to make changes and come up with innovative Islamic banking products. In order for the sector to accurate the changes, it sought the input of the innovators from the Islamic faith to provide guidance.  Therefore, diversity has led to the development of other forms of businesses that are specifically tailored to meet the needs of the diverse market base.

Cultural diversity fosters innovation by leveraging on the social capital that the diaspora has with the people in their mother country.  The social capital makes it easier for the external innovators to establish linkages in either side of the value chain. The  social capital make it easier for the diaspora to implement changes in the  supply chain and revamp the production system such that they are more competitive than the  locally based firms that have a traditional approach to things.  The cost of communication is significantly reduced between people or a culturally diverse group by the virtue of trust and mutual understanding that exists among them (Desrochers, 59). The Diasporas are important in the development of an innovative city in all aspects.

However, firms built by the diversified innovators are more open to discrimination. They often have to prove their capacity to deliver compared to the locally based firms. This phenomenon is evident in homogeneous communities. As a result, the contribution of the Diasporas in innovation is highly overshadowed by the local people (Doherty, 62). However, the change of policy in London in order to facilitate the movement of immigrant communities has led to the development of innovations. Some of the innovations arise from the need for the development of product offerings that meet the needs of the immigrants. The impetus, that they bring inform of cognitive diversity has furthered the innovations in the city. The ability of the public management to come up with an accommodative approach to diversity is an important determinant of how well the society will innovate. The London example is indicative of the gains that can be made from the accommodation of diversity. The city has witnessed rapid innovation since the change of policy in 2005 to accommodate the immigrants.  Majority of the innovations made by the changes are directly or indirectly attributed to the immigrant community.

Work cited

Berliant, M. and Fujita, M. The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic

Growth. 56th Annual North American Meeting, Regional Science Association

International. San Francisco. (2009). Print.

Duranton, G. and Puga, D. “Nursery Cities: Urban Diversity, Process Innovation and

41the Life Cycle of Products.” American Economic Review 91.5 (2010): 1454-1477.


Desrochers, Pierre, and Samuli Leppälä. “Creative Cities and Regions: The Case For Local Economic Diversity.” Creativity & Innovation Management 20.1 (2011): 59-69. Business Source Complete. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Doherty, Paul. “Smart Cities: A New Dynamic for the Middle East.” McGraw-Hill Financial Global Institute, 4 June 2014. Web. 1 December 2014

Saxenian, A.-L. The New Argonauts: Regional Advantage in a Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010. Print.

Wadhwa, V., Saxenian, A.-L., Rissing B, and Gereffi, G. America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs. Durham, NC:      Duke University / iSchool, UC Berkeley. 2007. Web. 1 December 2014.



Critical Analysis of “Young Goodman Brown”.

Critical Analysis of “Young Goodman Brown”


This purpose of this essay is to research on the classical literature of Hawthorne’s book, ‘Young Goodman Brown’. The thesis of this research is based on the evil and good characteristics of the human nature shown in this story.  This research will consist of a critical analysis of the story and to find out in what way the story is linked with human nature. As we can see that it is the story based on good and evil, so these two are traits of human nature (Hawthorne, 2005).  So this essay will explain and analyses the two traits of human nature defined in the story.  Hawthorne’s classic literature story ‘Young Goodman Brown’ is the tale that is just more than a mere tale exhibiting ambivalence. It is the story that is based on the events of 17th century revealing the double meaning of the tale (, 2014).  The author has used the characters, plots, theme and symbolism to bring together a tale that is based on the characteristics of human nature and its struggle between evil and good (Hawthorne, 2005).  Hawthorne is much more interested in the exploration of the social and psychological impacts of the knowledge that is guilty, whether this is based on the fact or not (, 2014).   The combination of these had made the story that can be related to anybody. Thus, the allegorical nature and the ambiguous symbolism shown in this story signify that it is a tale which requires a vigorous continued critical attention (Hawthorne, 2005).


Critical Analysis of the Story

Hawthorne has used ambiguity theme throughout this story and this theme portrays double meaning. The story begins with Brown’s wife ‘Faith’ that asks Brown to not go ‘errand’. Goodman remarks to his wife that for one night I have to tarry away from you. Here the author has used two meanings of the word ‘Faith’ (Hawthorne, 2005).   One is that he is talking to his wife and the other shows that he is also speaking his ‘Faith’ to God. One more example of this ambiguity as shown in this story is when Brown meets finally the Devil. He declares to the Devil that he was late because his Faith has kept him back for a while (Hawthorne, 2005).   Again this has a double meaning as he was physically prevented from his wife but the God’s faith psychologically delayed the meeting of Devil (Hawthorne, 2005).   The reader can judge from the story that Hawthorne has used the character of Goodman to display the human natures.  Throughout the story, the author has used ambivalence with the help of his character Goodman Brown. Ambivalence means the feelings opposed that is occurred within the same person. When this person has specific values and is faced with it than this shows the sign of ambivalence. In the tale, we can see that Goodman is involved in a battle between evil and good. Hawthorne has remarked that ‘it is the instincts of man that guides him to an evil path’ (Hawthorne, 2005).           This tale narrates the religious tale of Goodman during the whole course of night and it’s reflection on his life. The character Goodman is portrayed as a kind and a good man but he is navigated from a plethora of situations where he is in a quest that involves a little taste of ungodliness (Hawthorne, 2005).   The symbol used by the author further deepens the meaning of the message. The symbols show are individual objects, the setting and the characters that are represented.  The tale is still shrouded in mystery as there are two men that move throughout the forest together.  These men talk about the family of Goodman and he finds it difficult to believe that these men know his Grandfather (Hawthorne, 2005).   When the two man were about to approach their destination, Goodman wanted to turn back towards his wife. Goodman realizes that his faith i.e. his wife is recognized as a spiritual guide and a teacher. But Goodman realizes that his wife is also the part o evil that he was surrounded from. This was also true with the Minister and the Gookin (the two characters that were travelling with Goodman). Goodman realizes that both of these men are also in the league with evil. When Goodman moves out from their path and the darkness he sees a pink ribbon that is blown next to him (Hawthorne, 2005).

The main characters in this story are Devil and Goodman whereas Faith is also often mentioned. The names Faith and Goodman itself signify a deeper meaning.  The name Goodman symbolizes and is linked with ‘a kind and a good man’; ‘Faith’ means the trust in God and also another meaning of faith is the sweet, young bride of Goodman. So, the whole story has double meaning that stretches the length of the tale. It is mentioned in Hawthorne’s (444, Para 12) that when Goodman was late to meet with the Devil, it was faith the kept him back. This faith can be regarded as his religious conviction to God or his wife that held him back and from coming earlier (, 2014).   The character of Devil is portrayed as deceitful, full of turmoil and evil (Hawthorne, 2005).    In this whole story we can see that Goodman is wailing along paths most of his time throughout the woods.  This path is symbolized as a religious expedition which is explained by the author as ‘a dreary road’ (, 2014).  This means the path that is darkened because of the gloomy forest’s trees and these trees stood aside leaving a narrow creep path (406, Para 9). As Goodman ventures farther into this darkness the harder his path becomes. This derived Goodman diverging the path and progress to a path that is easier to travel. This explains that it is convenient to walk in the path of lesser resistance but it is not a wise thing to do (Hawthorne, 2005). Every individual object shown in the tale holds a deeper meaning and significance symbolically; especially the contributions of the two staffs by the sinister companion of Goodman.  The first consists of the great black snake resemblance and is wrought curiously. This staff can wriggle and twist itself just like any serpent living.

In short, Nathaniel Hawthorne has masterfully portrayed the fact using the irony of the story that people although may look good from the outside but they are enveloped in all sorts of evil within themselves (Hawthorne, 2005).   A descriptive imagery is also used by the author to describe the evils that is seen in the characters and in the forest (Hawthorne, 2005).   Hawthorne portrays the dark venture of Goodman’s Brown into this evil path using his imagery and describes the vivid forest and the ceremony of the witch.  This irony is used by the writer to refer to those people that are involved in the ceremony and the people that are part of the life of Goodman (, 2014).   This irony and ambiguity used by the author is named ‘Faith’ which refers to both the spiritual faith and also Brown’s wife. Thus, Faith has different symbolizing meaning attached to the main character. So, this tale is about Goodman as how he ventures into the woods and completes an evil deed.


Hawthorne, N. (2005). Young Goodman Brown. Wildside Press LLC.

Hawthorne, N. (1987). Young Goodman Brown. Digital American Literature Anthology1.,. (2014). Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story: Young Goodman Brown. Retrieved 28 November 2014, from

Webber, C. W. (2009). Young Goodman Brown. Alienation, 203.



Overweight and obesity are two different issues. Overweight means to weigh too much. On the other hand, obesity is having too much body fat. Overweight can result from large muscles, body water, fat, and or bones. In similarity, both come because of having a body weight exceeding the required weight for human beings. Individuals have different amounts food that they eat, hence the amount of calories. Therefore, consuming more calories than the amount in use results in obesity. “It is a fact to say that the world number of obesity patients has doubled since 1980. Adults from the age of 20 and above had overweight issues in the year 2008. This resulted to around 1.4 million casualties from which 200 million and 300 million were males and females respectively. 11 percent of the males were obese with around 35 percent being overweight” (Gillespie, 2013). Moreover, we live in the countries where obesity and overweight are killer diseases than underweight. In addition to cultural and psychological factors, four motives that affect the customer’s decision are quality, price, taste, and convenience.


A greater number of humans under the age of five years are obese. Most importantly, obesity is preventable. The main causes of obesity are the energy imbalance between the calories consumed and the calories used. This imbalance has been an advocation of the retail shops that do exist worldwide. “Since the producers of food are in business, it prompts them to produce these foods in large quantities because of the increasing customer base” (Gillespie, 2013). Their target is to make more profits than the previous financial years, but not the health of their customers: consumers. These foods that have high-fat content are usually shown as advertisements on televisions. The same companies that pay for the advertisements are the ones do the production and supply services. Therefore, they go ahead to encourage the consumers to do their shopping in bulk. “This is in consideration to their competitors who produce low-fat content foods, and their main aim is outdoing them by all means, as well as making substantial profits. Furthermore, there is an increase in the physical inactivity due to many changed forms of working” (Gillespie, 2013). Unfortunately, many people all over the world prefer sitting and watching television programs or working in the office all day rather than take a thirty-minutes break for exercising.

Most of the countries have seen increased urbanization. The changes from the normal hard works have increased the number of individuals being casualties of obesity. Change needs to be effected. “To counteract the nature of work, individuals need to exercise more to bring the energy intake and expend balance” (Lavie, 2014). The nature of obesity as a medical disease is long lost, and it has become the most common disease. It has replaced the infectious diseases and the under nutritious diseases as the chief contributor to ill health. The exact problem is the changes in physical and dietary activities due to the environmental and social shifts associated with developments and limited policies in the health sectors. The pressing need for criteria for evaluating weight loss programs stems from the scope of the problem of obesity in most of the countries. “The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising, not falling, among most population groups as characterized by gender, race, and age” (Lavie, 2014). Obesity generally belongs to the medical class of problems. In particular, obesity is associated with diabetes mellitus, sleep breathing disorders, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Further, the global epidemic of this disease is because of a combination of increased availability of energy food, genetic susceptibility, and decreased physical activities. Moreover, obesity should not be graded simply as a cosmetic problem affecting certain persons, but an epidemic that threatens global well-being.

The obesity epidemic is one of the world’s major health problems. “Adult obesity rates have doubled since 1980, from 15% to 30% while childhood obesity rates have more than tripled. Rising obesity rates have significant health consequences” (Gillespie, 2013). This has contributed to increased rates of more than thirty serious diseases. These conditions create a major strain on the health care system. More than one-quarter of health care costs are now related to obesity.

“Obesity is more than simply an individual problem; it has become a community problem. It drives up health care costs and decreasing productivity” (Lustig, 2014). Failure to take quick and good care of this problem at its initial stages leads to more deadly diseases like diabetes mellitus and cancer. Therefore, it is advisable that it should be prevented at the initial stages. Obesity is preventable, as an individual is required simply to have a balance between the consumed calories and the used calories. The cost of solving the obese issue varies depending on the stage. In the first stage, an individual may indulge into various physical exercises to tone down the fat content in the body.

A broad range of policy actions and programs has been implemented to help reduce the upsurge of obesity globally. They include policies such as the development of national clinical guidelines, nutrition labeling on packed foods, and calorie labelling on the restaurant packets. “Further, there are efforts of educating the masses through the social media marketing efforts and the government’s efforts to increase access and financing for fruits and vegetables” (Lustig, 2014). Communities can play a huge role in improving the healthy choices through efforts like complete streets and safe routes to school, as well as increasing access to healthier foods in schools and in the community. Family individuals also should advise their partners or counterparts to live healthy by eating the right choice of food and going for exercises.

In conclusion consumers are the players when it comes solving the obesity problems. The customers make individualistic choices about the type and quantity they eat at any given time. “If the consumer can be influenced by comprehensible nutrition information for several healthy food choices, then the problem of obesity can be an issue of the past” (Lustig, 2014). Perhaps individuals should begin to debate on the weight gain on an individual level. As mentioned in the introduction, the four factors of quality, price, taste and convenience have proved to be the main aspects in the increased rates of obesity being recorded all over the world.


Lustig R. Fat Chance: The Hidden Truth about Sugar, Obesity and Disease, Fourh Estate, 2014. Print.

Lavie, J. Carl. The Obesity Paradox, Scribe Publications, 2014, Print.

Gillespie David. The Sweet Poison Quit Plan, Penguin, 2013. Print.









Nancy Pelosi’s Contribution

Nancy Pelosi’s Contribution

Part 1

Nancy Pelosi is an American Democratic Politician who has been in the American politics for the last 27 years. From the year 2007 to 2011, she served as the speaker of the House, making history as the first woman to serve as a speaker of the house. Pelosi believes that she has a mission for the American ladies. She stands out as the best performer when her administration is compared with the administration of McConnell and House Speaker John Bochner. Pelosi’s mission for America is focused on empowering the average class people through the creation of employment opportunities, revolutionizing the political system for the better good of all Americans and empowering the women and American families.

Part 2

When she served as the 111th of the House of Representatives the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act was passed under her leadership. The objective of this bill was to expand educational opportunities for all Americans and to help improve the education systems of the USA.  The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act was passed under her leadership, and it ensures that all citizens have access to a free and fair judicial service system of the country. The act ensures that there is a free and fair payment system for all workers in the country. Apart from ensuring the introduction and implementation of the fair pay system, she also ensured the provision of health insurance schemes for the 11 million American children and extended further to people with disabilities. She has been in the forefront of ensuring educational opportunity for the Americans, protecting the American workers and initiating programs that promote health care. Her contributions to the health of the nation are very evident in women’s health programs and the creation of a system that tracks the relationship between environmental pollution factors and the rate of spread of the chronic diseases. She has aided in enhancing the development of HIV vaccine and delivery of the healthcare services to the HIV patients. She has always fought for an increase in the funding of health programs such as the HIV/AIDS program, the minority groups and those with disabilities.

The second contribution that she has made to the economy of America is energy security that she has achieved as the leader of the house. In 2007, she enacted an energy legislation which enhanced energy efficient vehicles. The energy legislation act brought about a growth in the American biofuels. In 2009, the house passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act. The objective of the act was to create clean energy jobs and enhance the efforts of combating the rising climate change issues. The act was to help in the efforts of combating climate change. However, despite her efforts, the Republicans Senate leaders rejected the bill.

Pelosi’s determination for accountability and transparency in the management of the government resources was demonstrated in the passing of the ethics legislation. The transparency act is considered as one of the toughest legislation in the American history. One of such achievement is the passing of the ethics panel that was judged with the responsibility of ensuring accountability and transparency in the house operations including the earmark reforms. She also passed a DISCLOSE act in the house, which stands against corporate management of the U.S. elections. She is still fighting for this legislation.

Part 3

In 2007, Pelosi became the speaker of the House of Representatives. Once she inherited the office, and her achievements included the appointment of congressional representatives to various congressional oversight committees. She was tasked with the mandate of setting the agenda for House discussion and controlling the discussions in the house as the speaker. At the congressional sessions, she practiced non-bias selection of congress members in the discussions and the appointments. She respected the rule of law, and whenever she was not available in the discussions, she delegated her duties to one of her surrogate democrat party members.

In the year 2010 the politics of the country underwent a transition, and the Republicans won more than half of the seats in the House of Representatives. She contested for the speaker of the house, but unfortunately, lost to the Republicans. She became the minority leader representing the democrats. She achieved the expectations of his party members by organizing for criticism and challenging the policies of the Republicans ruling party. She fought for the representation of the democrats in the house committee positions and led the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.

Pelosi is a powerful leader whose influence in the politics has led to the transitions and improvement for the lives of the American people. She has given a strong feeling and empowered other American women on the need for standing for their rights.  Despite the opposition, she has been facing from the republicans she has stood out strong and fought for the American women. Her desire for equity and transparency has changed the lives of the people greatly. The health insurance schemes and the HIV management efforts that she has dedicated to the country are incomparable with the contribution of other American women leaders.

Improving the Long-Term GDP and General Economy of the USA.

Improving the Long-Term GDP and General Economy of the USA

The United States are amongst of the major economies of the globe. The general performance of the economy of the United States has direct ramifications on all economies throughout the universe. This is largely because the United States dollar is employed as the standard of value during international trade. During instances where the economy of the United States performs well, the demand for the dollar is likely to raise hence its appreciation (Brown & Burton, 2009). A strong dollar has negative ramifications on the exports of the United States. When the dollar is strong, commercial entities that are exporting products from the United States tend to face comparatively low levels of competitiveness. The prices of their products and services tend to be priced higher than the ones whose prices are denominated in currencies that are weaker than the United States dollar. Consequently, this has negative consequences on the general outlook of the economy of the United States. Exports serve as income generating activities in the United States. As a result, the government needs to implement national economic policies that will facilitate the growth of the exports.

In the recent past, the Chinese government has become extremely aggressive at the international markets. China has focused on establishing trade partnerships aimed at enhancing its prospects at the international markets. Specifically, it has entered into trade partnership agreements with major economies such as South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Australia. In the long term, it aims at dominating the Asia Pacific region in terms of trade and economic power. China is perceived as a major competitor of the United States. The currency of China is not determined based on prevailing market conditions. Instead, the value of the currency is set by the central bank referred to as the People’s Bank of China. This is a stratagem aimed at ensuring that the products from China remain competitive in the international markets (Brown & Burton, 2009). Therefore, China will manage to realize economic growth in the long term. The United States should formulate economic policies that will stimulate the demand for its products in the international level. Since it would not be cautious for the US to fix its currency value and then it is suitable for government to provide an incentive to the exporters. For instance, the government can reduce the overall tax that is charged on exports. This move will facilitate the exporters to reduce their costs of operation, which will enable them to price their products in a competitive manner. Consequently, the overall demand of products from the United States is likely to rise, hence leading to the economic growth in the long term.

Over and above that, the government should reduce its overall reliance on debt. Over the years, the United States have been increasing its overall appetite for debt. As the prevailing debt levels of the country increases, the overall degree of economic growth reduces. This is mainly because debt financing is expensive, and the natures of costs attributed to debt financing are always increasing in the long term (Boccia, 2013). As a result, the government should look for ways of raising financing through revenue enhancement. At the moment, the overall debt of the United States is estimated to be approximately ninety percent of the GDP. This implies that the economy of the United States is primarily funded by debt. The United States is recovering from the Global Financial Crisis that took centre stage in the year 2008. However, if the government does not reduce its current degree of reliance on debt it is likely that the country will experience another economic crisis. Japan and Greece are countries that experienced a financial crisis largely because of the nature of debt levels that they used to maintain. The United States is experiencing high costs of financing its government, and a reduction in the overall level of debt is likely to have positive implications for the long-term growth of the GDP and the economy. The government needs to study the kind of measures that were implemented in Japan and Greece so as to reduce their reliance on debt. Failure to minimize the prevailing degree of debt is likely to have adverse implications on the global economy.

In addition, the United States should raise the minimum wage. This is a move aimed at enhancing the purchasing power of the majority of the persons living in the United States. The purchasing power is determined by the income generated. The increase in incomes leads to a rise in purchasing power (Covert, 2013). The demand for local products is likely to increase with an increase in purchasing power. This is because the majority of the people will be able to afford various services and products being rendered in the market. Consequently, this will have positive implications for the long-term growth of the GDP and the economy of the United States.


Brown, B., & Burton, M. (2009). The Financial System and the Economy. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Boccia, R. (2013, February 12). How the United States’ High Debt Will Weaken the Economy and Hurt Americans. Retrieved Nov 25, 2014, from The Heritage Foundation:

Covert, B. (2013, December 19). Raising The Minimum Wage To $10.10 Would Boost Growth By $22 Billion. Retrieved Novemeber 25, 2014, from ThinkProgress:


International Trade.

International Trade

Over the years, China has been aiming at enhancing the overall performance of its economy. As a result, its leaders have been keen on formulating as well as implementing stratagem that is focused on the realization of the aforementioned objective. Most recently, the government announced that it is concentrating on establishing robust ties with some strategic business partners (Stevenson and Bradsher). The fostering of partnerships serves as an avenue through which the Chinese can enhance the general performance of their economy. The government entered into a partnership agreement with South Korea. The nature of the agreement that was signed between these two countries renders South Korea as China’s largest trading partners. Australia has also been a major trading partner with China. This article indicates that the representatives of these two countries are working on modalities that will facilitate them to enhance the quality of their strategic partnership agreement.

The international business partnership can facilitate the enhancement of the economic performance of a country. This form of partnerships facilitates countries to improve their market shares by way of venturing into other countries. The Chinese are concentrating on marketing their products abroad. This move will enable them to improve the demand for its products, thereby the economy is likely to benefit through realization of export revenues. China is amongst the fastest developing economies across the globe. As a result, it is seeking to become the economic powerhouse of Asia (Stevenson and Bradsher). The government has progressively been negotiating with some of the countries within this particular region, such as Taiwan and Japan, with the aim of fostering trade partnerships.


  1. North America (Excluding US)
  2. Europe
  3. Sub – Saharan Africa
  4. Arab World
  5. West Africa
  6. East Asia
  7. Australia
  8. S.

Evidently, the Chinese appreciates the essence of international trade. They are conscious that international trade is likely to facilitate the growth of its economy. The Chinese government needs to put in place mechanisms that will allow other countries to benefit from trade partnership agreements. Most recently, the central bank enhanced the value of the Renminbi. This move was encouraging International exporters to export products into the country. The enhancement of the Chinese currency value will also enhance the general competitiveness of products from other countries (Stevenson and Bradsher). For years, the Renminbi has provided Chinese commercial entities with a competitive advantage. Products or services, which were dominated in the aforementioned currency used to be cheaper than those being rendered by the competitors. As a result, they used to generate more demand than their competitors, which led to the realization of comparatively high levels of export revenues. The government appreciates that international trade by the value of the local currency against the U.S. Dollar. The US dollar is normally employed as the standard value of exchange during international trade. This attribute has led to the strengthening of the US dollar. The value of the US dollar is normally determined based on the prevailing economic factors, whereas the value of the Renminbi is defined by the central bank. The China regulates the worth of their currency to enhance the competitiveness of their products in the international markets.

Despite the overall degree of progress that has been realized with regards to the liberalization of trade in China, multinationals still claim foul play. This article reports that multinationals are subjected to double standards with regards to the implementation of the law. The article reports that there are numerous instances, where multinational corporations are treated unfairly (Stevenson and Bradsher). As a result, it is essential for the government to look into this issue and solve it. The prevalence of such setbacks is likely to have negative ramifications on the growth of international trade in China.

Works Cited

stevenson, Alexandra and Keith Bradsher . “China Builds Financial Ties to Neighbors.” 10 Nov 2014. The New York Times. Internet. 24 Nov 2014. <>.



Profits and the Reasons for Shutting Down a Business.

Profits and the Shutdown Decision

Shut down decisions induced by economic development is usually reached after analysis of the Net Present Value of the firm and contingencies that are likely to face the business in the long run. Technically, shut down decisions are arrived at when the average variable costs are more than the marginal revenue, therefore, the company would be reflecting losses in the statement of comprehensive income.

First and foremost, legal fees such as increased land and property taxes will be a major reason for shutdown of the motel. The probability of increased tax costs is a crucial reason for the shutdown. The more the value of land increases, the more the government increases tax, therefore, creating a situation where the marginal revenue is below the average cost.

Secondly, perfect competition can bring down the motel. Progressive economic development will create competition as more advanced resorts would be set up in order to absorb the increasing market in the area. In a situation of perfect competition, the players in the market have knowledge about the micro and macro factors that affect the business.

Another issue is the lack of access to sophisticated technology, as well as, infrastructure to complement the economic development in the area will causes the closedown. The optimal decision in such a case would be mergers, acquisitions or reorganization.

Some of the costs to be incurred in the process of shutdown of the motel are the advertising costs for sale of the property. Secondly, legal costs will be incurred because a legal practitioner will be needed in the shutdown process. Other expenses include expenses such as accrued terminal benefits to staff, returns to shareholders and tax costs that are due to the government.